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March 25, 2016
Diseases Symptoms - Basic Medical Terms Topic Center

zopiclone

Zopiclone, (brand name Imovane in Canada, and Zimovane in the UK) is a non-benzodiazepine hypnotic agent used in the treatment of insomnia. ...

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Basic medical terms

"Basic Medical Terms" Subtopics and articles

    5-HTP 5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), also known as oxitriptan (INN), is a naturally-occurring amino acid and chemical precursor as well as metabolic...
    Abbott Laboratories Abbott Laboratories () is a pharmaceuticals health care company. It has 72,000 employees and operates in over 130 countries. The company he...
    abdominal striae "Striae" is also a general term referring to thin, narrow grooves or channels, or a thin line or band especially if several of the...
    Absenteeism Absenteeism is a habitual pattern of absence from a duty or obligation. Traditionally, absenteeism has been viewed as an indicator of poor i...
    ACE inhibitor thumb|[[Captopril, the first ACE inhibitor|200px|right]]ACE inhibitors or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, are a group of pharmaceu...
    acetaminophen Paracetamol (international nonproprietary name) (, ) or acetaminophen () (USAN) is a widely used over-the-counter analgesic (pain reliever) ...
    Acquired disorder An acquired disorder is a medical condition which develops post-fetally; in contrast with a congenital disorder, which is present at birth. ...
    Acrodermatitis continua Dermatitis repens (also known as "Acrodermatitis continua," See also Psoriasis Skin lesion List of cutaneous conditions Fran??...
    Actigraphy Actigraphy is a relatively non-invasive method of monitoring human rest/activity cycles. A small actigraph unit, also called an actimetry se...
    acupuncture thumb|right|250px|Acupuncture chart from Hua Shou ([[floruit|fl. 1340s, Ming Dynasty). This image from Shi si jing fa hui (Expression of the...
    ADAM33 Disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 33 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ADAM33 gene.ReferencesFurther r...
    adaptive immune system thumb|right|200px|A [[scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of a single human lymphocyte.]]The adaptive immune system is composed of high...
    adjuvant cancer therapy Adjuvant therapy is a term used to describe the role of therapy relative to other cancer treatments.The terms adjuvant and neoadjuvant have ...
    adrenal gland In mammals, the adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are the triangular-shaped endocrine glands that sit on top of the kidneys. ...
    adrenergic receptor The adrenergic receptors (or adrenoceptors) are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that are targets of the catecholamines, especially no...
    adrenocorticotropic hormone Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), also known as 'corticotropin', is a polypeptide tropic hormone produced and secreted by the anterior pit...
    adverse drug reaction An adverse drug reaction (abbreviated ADR) is an expression that describes harm associated with the use of given medications at a normal dos...
    advocacy group Advocacy groups (also pressure groups, lobby groups and some interest groups and special interest groups) use various forms of advocacy to i...
    aerobic exercise Aerobic exercise is physical exercise that intends to improve the oxygen system. Aerobic means "with oxygen", and refers to the us...
    ageing thumb|A human face showing signs of ageingthumb|An elderly womanAgeing (British and Australian English) or aging (American and Canadian Engl...
    AKT Akt/PKB is a serine/threonine protein kinase that plays a key role in multiple cellular processes such as glucose metabolism, cell prolifera...
    Al Herpin Al Herpin was known as the "Man Who Never Slept."Al Herpin, who lived in Trenton, New Jersey, claimed to have developed a rare cas...
    albuterol Salbutamol (INN) or albuterol (USAN) is a short-acting ??<sub>2</sub>-adrenergic receptor agonist used for the relief of broncho...
    Alcohol and cancer thumb|200px|Total recorded alcohol per capita consumption (15+), in litres of pure alcohol.Alcohol is associated with an increased risk of a...
    alcohol consumption Alcohol consumption may refer to: Alcohol consumption by youth in the United States Alcoholic beverage Legal drinking age List of countri...
    alcohol consumption and health thumb|[[Disability-adjusted life year for alcohol use disorders per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004.<div class="references-small" s...
    alefacept Alefacept is a genetically engineered immunosuppressive drug sold under the brand name Amevive in Canada, the United States, Israel, Switzer...
    aliskiren Aliskiren (INN) (trade names Tekturna, U.S.; Rasilez, U.K. and elsewhere) is the first in a class of drugs called direct renin inhibitor. It...
    allergen An allergen is a nonparasitic antigen capable of stimulating a type-I hypersensitivity reaction in atopic individuals.Most humans mount sign...
    Allergen immunotherapy Allergen immunotherapy (also termed hyposensitization therapy, immunologic desensitization or allergen-specific immunotherapy) is a form of ...
    allergens An allergen is a nonparasitic antigen capable of stimulating a type-I hypersensitivity reaction in atopic individuals.Most humans mount sign...
    allergic conjunctivitis Allergic conjunctivitis is inflammation of the conjunctiva (the membrane covering the white part of the eye) due to allergy. Although allerg...
    allergic rhinitis Allergic rhinitis, pollenosis or hay fever is an allergic inflammation of the nasal airways.It occurs when an allergen such as pollen or dus...
    Alpha blocker &alpha; blockers or (adrenergic) &alpha;-antagonists are pharmacological agents that act as antagonists of &alpha; adrenergic re...
    alpha helices right|thumb|200px|Side view of an ??-helix of [[alanine residues in atomic detail. Two hydrogen bonds to the same peptide group are highligh...
    alpha helix right|thumb|200px|Side view of an ??-helix of [[alanine residues in atomic detail. Two hydrogen bonds to the same peptide group are highligh...
    Ambien Zolpidem is a prescription medication used for the short-term treatment of insomnia, as well as some brain disorders. It is a short-acting n...
    amenorrhea Amenorrhoea (BE), amenorrhea (AmE), or amenorrh??a, is the absence of a menstrual period in a woman of reproductive age. Physiological state...
    American Cancer Society The American Cancer Society (ACS) is the "nationwide community-based voluntary health organization dedicated to eliminating cancer as a...
    American Institute for Cancer Research thumb|American Institute for Cancer Research headquarters in [[Washington, D.C.]]The American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) is a larg...
    American Society of Clinical Oncology The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) is the world's leading professional organization representing physicians of all oncology su...
    American Thoracic Society American Thoracic Society (ATS), established in 1905, is an independently incorporated, international, educational and scientific society, ...
    Amevive Alefacept is a genetically engineered immunosuppressive drug sold under the brand name Amevive in Canada, the United States, Israel, Switzer...
    amino acids thumbnail|200px|The general structure of an alpha amino acid.thumb|upright=2.0|right|alt=Table of Amino Acids.|The twenty-one amino acids fo...
    amitriptyline Amitriptyline (Elavil, Tryptizol, Laroxyl, Sarotex, Lentizol) is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA). It is the most widely used TCA and has at...
    amygdala right|thumb|300px|Human brain in the coronal orientation. Amygdalae are shown in dark red.The (singular: ; also ') (Latin, from Greek , ',...
    analgesia An analgesic (also known as a painkiller) is any member of the group of drugs used to relieve pain (achieve analgesia). The word analgesic d...
    analgesic An analgesic (also known as a painkiller) is any member of the group of drugs used to relieve pain (achieve analgesia). The word analgesic d...
    anaphylaxis Anaphylaxis is an acute multi-system severe type I hypersensitivity reaction. The term comes from the Greek words ??????? ana (against) and...
    androgen Androgen, also called androgenic hormones or testoids, is the generic term for any natural or synthetic compound, usually a steroid hormone,...
    Andropause Andropause or male menopause Unlike women, middle-aged men do not experience a complete and permanent physiological shutting down of the re...
    androstenedione Androstenedione (also known as 4-androstenedione) is a 19-carbon steroid hormone produced in the adrenal glands and the gonads as an interme...
    aneurysm An aneurysm or aneurism (from - aneurusma "dilation", from ????????????????????? - aneurunein "to dilate"), is a locali...
    Angioedema Angioedema (BE: angiooedema) or Quincke's edema is the rapid swelling (edema) of the dermis, subcutaneous tissue, mucosa and submucosal tiss...
    Angiotensin II receptor antagonist thumb|Losartan, the first ARB|200px|rightAngiotensin II receptor antagonists, also known as angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), AT<sub&...
    animal model An animal model is a living, non-human animal used during the research and investigation of human disease, for the purpose of better underst...
    Ankylosing spondylitis Ankylosing spondylitis (AS, from Greek ankylos, bent; spondylos, vertebrae), previously known as Bekhterev's disease, Bekhterev syndrome, an...
    Annular pustular psoriasis Annular pustular psoriasis is a rare variant of pustular psoriasis, having an annular, or circinate, lesion morphology that may appear at th...
    anthralin Dithranol (INN) or Anthralin (USAN and former BAN) is a Hydroxyanthrone, anthracene derivative, medicine applied to the skin of people with ...
    anti-histamine A histamine antagonist is an agent that inhibits action of histamine via histamine receptors. H<sub>1</sub> antihistamines are ...
    anti-inflammatory Anti-inflammatory refers to the property of a substance or treatment that reduces inflammation. Anti-inflammatory drugs make up about half o...
    antiadrenergic A sympatholytic (or sympathoplegic) drug is a medication which inhibits the postganglionic functioning of the sympathetic nervous system (SN...
    antibiotic An antibacterial is a substance that kills bacteria or slows their growth.It is sometimes used as a synonym for "antibiotic", but ...
    Antibiotics An antibacterial is a substance that kills bacteria or slows their growth.It is sometimes used as a synonym for "antibiotic", but ...
    antibody thumb|255px|Each antibody binds to a specific antigen; an interaction similar to a lock and key.Antibodies (also known as immunoglobulinsTho...
    anticholinergic An anticholinergic agent is a substance that blocks the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central and the peripheral nervous system. An ...
    antidepressant thumb|right|[[Fluoxetine (Prozac), an SSRI]]thumb|right|[[Venlafaxine, an SNRI]]An antidepressant is a psychiatric medication used to allevi...
    antigens thumb|255px|Each antibody binds to a specific antigen; an interaction similar to a lock and key.An antigen is a substance or molecule that w...
    antihistamine A histamine antagonist is an agent that inhibits action of histamine via histamine receptors. H<sub>1</sub> antihistamines are ...
    antihistaminergic A histamine antagonist is an agent that inhibits action of histamine via histamine receptors. H<sub>1</sub> antihistamines are ...
    antihistamines A histamine antagonist is an agent that inhibits action of histamine via histamine receptors. H<sub>1</sub> antihistamines are ...
    antihypertensive drug thumb|Antihypertensive therapy seeks to prevent the complications of high blood pressure, such as stroke and [[myocardial infarction.]]The a...
    antimalarial drug thumb|A thin-film Giemsa stained micrograph of ring-forms, and gametocytes of Plasmodium falciparum. (CDC)Antimalarial drugs are designed to...
    antimetabolite |thumb|300px|right|The drug [[methotrexate (right) is an antimetabolite that interferes with the metabolism of folic acid (left).]]An antime...
    antinuclear factor Anti-nuclear antibodies (ANAs, also known as anti-nuclear factor or ANF) are autoantibodies directed against contents of the cell nucleus.Th...
    anxiety disorder Anxiety disorders are blanket terms covering several different forms of abnormal and pathological fear and anxiety which only came under the...
    apoptosis 300px|thumb|right|Apoptosis increasing from normal cells (top) to apoptotic ones (bottom).Apoptosis ( or ) is the process of programmed cell...
    applied kinesiology thumb|160px|Applied kinesiologist (right) practisingApplied Kinesiology (AK) is a chiropractic diagnostic and treatment modality<ref name...
    Argan oil 300px|right|thumb|Plantation of argansArgan oil is an oil produced from the kernels of the argan tree, endemic to Morocco, that is valued fo...
    Arginine Arginine (abbreviated as Arg or R) is an ??-amino acid. The <small>L</small>-form is one of the 20 most common natural amino aci...
    armpits The axilla (or armpit, underarm, or oxter) is the area on the human body directly under the joint where the arm connects to the shoulder.Bou...
    aromatase inhibitor thumb|right|350px|Aromatase converts [[testosterone to estradiol]]thumb|right|350px|Aromatase converts [[androstenedione to estrone]]Aromata...
    Aromatherapy thumb|right|400px|A diffuser and a bottle of essential oil.Aromatherapy is a form of alternative medicine that uses volatile plant materials...
    arthralgia Arthralgia (from Greek arthro-, joint + -algos, pain) literally means joint pain; it is a symptom of injury, infection, illnesses (in parti...
    Arthritis Care Arthritis Care is the UK's largest charity dedicated to supporting people with arthritis (registered charity nos: 206563, SC038693). It is a...
    Arthritis Foundation The Arthritis Foundation is a charitable foundation dedicated to the prevention, control, and cure of arthritis and related diseases. It is ...
    aspiration pneumonia Aspiration pneumonia is bronchopneumonia that develops due to the entrance of foreign materials that enter the bronchial tree, usually oral ...
    aspirin Aspirin (USAN), also known as acetylsalicylic acid ( , abbreviated ASA), is a salicylate drug, often used as an analgesic to relieve minor a...
    asthma Asthma (from the Greek ??????????, ??sthma, "panting") is a common chronic inflammatory disease of the airways characterized by v...
    asthma spacer thumb|Baby using inhaler and spacer.An asthma spacer is an add-on device used to increase the ease of administering aerosolized medication f...
    AstraZeneca AstraZeneca plc (, , ) is a global pharmaceutical and biologics company headquartered in London, United Kingdom. It is the world's seventh l...
    asymptomatic thumb|250px|right|[[Pulmonary contusion due to trauma is an example of a condition that can be asymptomatic with half of people showing no s...
    atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis (also known as arteriosclerotic vascular disease or ASVD) is a condition in which an artery wall thickens as the result of ...
    athlete's foot Athlete's foot (also known as ringworm of the foot and tinea pedis) is a fungal infection of the skin that causes scaling, flaking, and itch...
    atopic dermatitis Atopic dermatitis (AD; a type of eczema) is an inflammatory, chronically relapsing, non-contagious and pruritic skin disorder. It has been g...
    atopic eczema Atopic dermatitis (AD; a type of eczema) is an inflammatory, chronically relapsing, non-contagious and pruritic skin disorder. It has been g...
    atopy Atopy (; Greek ????????????? - placelessness, out of place, special, unusual) or atopic syndrome is an allergic hypersensitivity affecting p...
    Atrial Natriuretic Factor Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), atrial natriuretic hormone (ANH), or atriopeptin, is a powerful vasodilat...
    Atrophic vaginitis Atrophic vaginitis (also known as vaginal atrophy or urogenital atrophy) is an inflammation of the vagina (and the outer urinary tract) due ...
    atypical antipsychotics thumb|[[Skeletal formula of clozapine, the first atypical antipsychotic]]The atypical antipsychotics (AAP) (also known as second generation ...
    Aulus Cornelius Celsus thumb|Aulus Cornelius Celsus. Aulus Cornelius Celsus (ca 25 BC???ca 50) was a Roman encyclopedist, known for his extant medical work, De M...
    autoimmune disease Autoimmune diseases arise from an overactive immune response of the body against substances and tissues normally present in the body. In oth...
    autoimmune diseases Autoimmune diseases arise from an overactive immune response of the body against substances and tissues normally present in the body. In oth...
    autoimmune disorder Autoimmune diseases arise from an overactive immune response of the body against substances and tissues normally present in the body. In oth...
    azathioprine Azathioprine () is a drug that suppresses the immune system. Azathioprine is used in organ transplantation and autoimmune disease. Some of ...
    B cell This article is about cell biology. For the electrical term, see: B battery. thumb|220px|right|The cells of the immune system that make ant...
    baby powder thumb|Talcum powderBaby powder is an astringent powder used for preventing diaper rash, as a deodorant, and for other cosmetic uses. It may...
    Back pain Back pain (also known as dorsalgia) is pain felt in the back that usually originates from the muscles, nerves, bones, joints or other struct...
    bacteria Bacteria (; singular: bacterium) are a large group of single-celled, prokaryote microorganisms. Typically a few micrometres in length, bacte...
    baldness Baldness is the state of having no hair or lacking hair where it often grows, especially on the head. The most common form of baldness is a ...
    barium swallow A barium swallow is a medical imaging procedure used to examine the upper GI (gastrointestinal) tract, which includes the esophagus and, to ...
    basophil framed|Basophil granulocytethumb|BasophilBasophil granulocytes, sometimes referred to as basophils, are the least common of the granulocytes...
    basophil granulocyte framed|Basophil granulocytethumb|BasophilBasophil granulocytes, sometimes referred to as basophils, are the least common of the granulocytes...
    beclometasone dipropionate Beclometasone dipropionate (INN modified) or beclomethasone dipropionate (USAN, former BAN), also referred to as beclometasone (INN), is a p...
    bell palsy Bell may refer to:Sound and music Bell (instrument), a percussion instrument, usually cup-shaped Bell (wind instrument) Bell effect, a mus...
    Benign breast disease Fibrocystic breast changes or fibrocystic breast disease is a condition of breast tissue affecting an estimated 30-60% of women. It is char...
    Benjamin Bell Benjamin Bell (1749 - 1806) is considered the first Scottish scientific surgeon. He published medical works of noted significance and was to...
    benzodiazepine A benzodiazepine (, sometimes colloquially referred to as a "benzo", and often abbreviated in the literature as a "BZD")...
    benzodiazepine receptors thumb|right|400px|Structure of the [[nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAchR: ) which is very similar to the GABA<sub>A</sub> re...
    benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome???often abbreviated to benzo withdrawal???is the cluster of symptoms which appear when a person who has t...
    Bernard Peyrilhe Bernard Peyrilhe (1737???1804) was a French surgeon known as one of the founders of experimental cancer research. He injected some extracts ...
    beta blocker thumb|[[Skeletal formula of propranolol, the first clinically successful beta blocker]]Beta blockers (sometimes written as ??-blockers) or b...
    beta sheets The ?? sheet (also ??-pleated sheet) is the second form of regular secondary structure in proteins, only somewhat less common than alpha hel...
    Beta-2 adrenergic receptor The beta-2 adrenergic receptor (??<sub>2</sub> adrenoreceptor), also known as ADRB2, is a beta-adrenergic receptor, and also den...
    beta-glucuronidase Beta-glucuronidases are members of the glycosidase family of enzymes that catalyze breakdown of complex carbohydrates. In the gut, brush bor...
    beta2-adrenergic agonist ??<sub>2</sub>-adrenergic agonists, also known as ??<sub>2</sub>-adrenergic receptor agonists, are a class of drugs ...
    Biblica thumb|Biblica headquarters in [[Colorado Springs.]]Biblica, formerly named International Bible Society and IBS-STL, is headquartered in Colo...
    Binding site In biochemistry, a binding site is a region on a protein, DNA, or RNA to which specific other molecules and ions???in this context collectiv...
    biofeedback Biofeedback is the process of becoming aware of various physiological functions using instruments that provide information on the activity o...
    biogeography Biogeography is the study of the distribution of species spatially and temporally. Over areal ecological changes, it is also tied to the con...
    Biologics Biologics include a wide range of medicinal products such as vaccines, blood and blood components, allergenics, somatic cells, gene therapy,...
    biopsy thumb|Brain biopsyA biopsy is a medical test involving the removal of cells or tissues for examination. It is the medical removal of tissue ...
    bipolar disorder Bipolar disorder or manic-depressive disorder, which is also referred to as bipolar affective disorder or manic depression, is a psychiatric...
    blister A blister is a small pocket of fluid within the upper layers of the skin, typically caused by forceful rubbing (friction), burning, freezing...
    blood flow Blood flow is the flow of blood in the cardiovascular system. It can be calculated by dividing the vascular resistance into the pressure gr...
    blood plasma Blood plasma is the yellow liquid component of blood in which the blood cells in whole blood are normally suspended. It makes up about 55% o...
    blood pressure See Hypertension for more information about high blood pressure. thumb|A [[sphygmomanometer, a device used for measuring arterial pressure.]...
    Blood test thumb|right|A [[venipuncture preformed using a vacutainer]]A blood test is a laboratory analysis performed on a blood sample that is usually...
    blood volume Blood volume is the volume of blood (both red blood cells and plasma) in a person's circulatory system. A typical adult has a blood volume o...
    Bloom-Richardson grade The Bloom-Richardson grading system, or the modified Bloom-Richardson-Elston grading system, is a breast cancer staging system that examines...
    blurred vision Blurred vision is an ocular symptom.CausesThere are many causes of blurred vision: Use of atropine or other anticholinergics Presbyopia -- ...
    BMD BMD can refer to several things: BMD (Biddick Mad Dogs) BMD Big Medium Drink BMD-1 Soviet/Russian airborne infantry fighting vehicle Ball...
    body-mass index Image:Body mass index chart.svg|right|395px|thumb|A graph of body mass index is shown above. The dashed lines represent subdivisions within ...
    bone remodeling thumb|300 px|right|Bone tissue is removed by osteoclasts, and then new bone tissue is formed by osteoblasts. Both processes utilize cytokine...
    Bordetella pertussis Bordetella pertussis is a Gram-negative, aerobic coccobacillus of the genus Bordetella, and the causative agent of pertussis or whooping cou...
    botulinum toxin Botulinum toxin is a protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum, and is known to be extremely neurotoxic.<ref name= KukrejaR...
    Brace (orthopaedic) "Orthotist", "orthopaedic brace" and "ankle-foot orthotic (AFO)" redirect here, where they are dealt with in ...
    brachytherapy Brachytherapy (from the Greek word brachys, meaning "short-distance"), also known as internal radiotherapy, sealed source radiothe...
    brain thumb|250px|alt=A brain floating in a liquid-filled glass jar. Yellowing of the handwritten labels on the jar give the object an antique app...
    BRCA BRCA can refer to one of several things:BRCA1 and BRCA2, a pair of genes involved in breast cancer. See BRCA mutation British Radio Car Asso...
    BRCA mutation A BRCA mutation is a mutation in either of the genes BRCA1 and BRCA2. Hundreds of mutations have been identified, some of them cause increas...
    BRCA1 thumb|right|Location of the BRCA1 gene on chromosome 17.BRCA1 (breast cancer 1, early onset, often ) is a human tumor suppressor gene, which...
    BRCA2 BRCA2 (Breast Cancer 2 susceptibility protein) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BRCA2 gene.BRCA2 orthologs have been identifie...
    Breakthrough Breast Cancer Breakthrough Breast Cancer is a United Kingdom charity committed to fighting breast cancer through research, campaigning and education. Its...
    Breast Cancer Action Breast Cancer Action (BCA) is a national grassroots education and advocacy organization dedicated to supporting people living with breast ca...
    Breast Cancer Network of Strength thumb|right|200px|Logo of the Breast Cancer Network of Strength.The Breast Cancer Network of Strength (formerly known as Y-ME National Breas...
    breast exam frame|right|A woman examines her breast.Breast self-examination (BSE) is a screening method used in an attempt to detect early breast cancer...
    breast exams frame|right|A woman examines her breast.Breast self-examination (BSE) is a screening method used in an attempt to detect early breast cancer...
    breast health This article deals with health related issues of the Breast. Breast diseases can be classified either with disorders of the integuement, or ...
    breast lump Breast lump is a localized swelling that feels different from the surrounding breast tissue. It is a symptom/sign for a variety of condition...
    breast neoplasm This article deals with health related issues of the Breast. Breast diseases can be classified either with disorders of the integuement, or ...
    breastfeeding thumb|[[International Breastfeeding Symbol]]right|thumb|An infant breastfeedingSuckling and nursing are synonyms. For other uses, see Nursin...
    breasts The breast is the upper ventral region of the torso of a primate, in left and right sides, which in a female contains the mammary gland that...
    British Thoracic Society The British Thoracic Society (BTS) was formed in 1982 by the amalgamation of the British Thoracic Association and the Thoracic Society. It i...
    bromocriptine Bromocriptine (Parlodel, Cycloset), an ergoline derivative, is a dopamine agonist that is used in the treatment of pituitary tumors, Parkins...
    bronchi A bronchus (plural bronchi, adjective bronchial) is a passage of airway in the respiratory tract that conducts air into the lungs.No gas exc...
    bronchiectasis Bronchiectasis is a disease state defined by localized, irreversible dilation of part of the bronchial tree. It is classified as an obstruct...
    bronchiolitis Bronchiolitis is inflammation of the bronchioles, the smallest air passages of the lungs. This inflammation is usually caused by viruses.Cau...
    Bronchodilators A bronchodilator is a substance that dilates the bronchi and bronchioles, decreasing resistance in the respiratory airway and increasing air...
    bronchospasm Bronchospasm or a bronchial spasm is a sudden constriction of the muscles in the walls of the bronchioles. It is caused by the release (degr...
    budgerigar The Budgerigar (), Common Pet Parakeet, or Shell Parakeet (Melopsittacus undulatus), informally nicknamed the budgie, is a small, long-taile...
    Buteyko breathing technique The Buteyko method or Buteyko Breathing Technique is a practice used for the treatment of asthma. The method takes its name from the late Uk...
    caffeine Caffeine (also spelled caffein) is a bitter, white crystalline xanthine alkaloid that is a psychoactive stimulant drug. Caffeine was discove...
    calcipotriol Calcipotriol (INN) or calcipotriene (USAN) is a synthetic derivative of calcitriol or vitamin D. It is used in the treatment of psoriasis, ...
    Calcium channel blocker Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are a class of drugs and natural substances that disrupt the calcium (Ca<sup>2+</sup>) through ...
    Calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease thumb|[[Calcium pyrophosphate]]Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate disease (CPPD) is a rheumatologic disorder with varied symptoms arising due t...
    Cambridge Antibody Technology Cambridge Antibody Technology, or CAT, was the UK biotechnology group of companies whose success was based mainly on its ability to generate...
    cancer Cancer (medical term: malignant neoplasm) is a class of diseases in which a cell, or a group of cells display uncontrolled growth (divisio...
    Cancer staging The stage of a cancer is a description (usually numbers I to IV) of how much the cancer has spread. The stage often takes into account the ...
    cancer support group Cancer support groups provide a setting in which cancer patients can talk about living with cancer with others who may be having similar exp...
    cancers Cancer (medical term: malignant neoplasm) is a class of diseases in which a cell, or a group of cells display uncontrolled growth (divisio...
    candidiasis Candidiasis or thrush is a fungal infection (mycosis) of any of the Candida species (all yeasts), of which Candida albicans is the most comm...
    cannabinoids Cannabinoids are a class of chemical compounds which include the phytocannabinoids (oxygen-containing C<sub>21</sub> aromatic hy...
    cannabis (drug) Cannabis, also known as marijuana (sometimes spelled "marihuana"The typical herbal form of cannabis consists of the flowers and su...
    captopril Captopril (rINN) () is an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE inhibitor) used for the treatment of hypertension and some types of c...
    carboxyl group thumb|150px|Structure of a carboxylic acidthumb|150px|Carboxylate ionthumb|150px|The 3D structure of the carboxyl groupCarboxylic acids are ...
    carcinogenic thumb|right|The hazard symbol for carcinogenic chemicals in the [[Globally Harmonized System.]]A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide o...
    cardiac output Cardiac output (Q) is the volume of blood being pumped by the heart, in particular by a Left or Right ventricle in the Time interval of one ...
    cardiovascular The circulatory system is an organ system that passes nutrients (such as amino acids, electrolytes and lymph), gases, hormones, blood cells,...
    cardiovascular disease Heart disease or cardiovascular diseases is the class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels (arteries and veins). While the te...
    cardiovascular diseases Heart disease or cardiovascular diseases is the class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels (arteries and veins). While the te...
    cartilage Cartilage is a flexible connective tissue found in many areas in the bodies of humans and other animals, including the joints between bones,...
    case-control thumb|upright=1|Case-Control Study vs. Cohort on a TimelineCase-control is a type of epidemiological, clinical study design. It is typically...
    catalysts Image:Heterogeneous cat.JPG|thumb|right|292px|Solid heterogeneous catalysts such as in automobile catalytic converters are plated on structu...
    Catastrophization Exaggeration is a representation of something in an excessive manner. Words or expressions associated with exaggeration include:Everyday and...
    Caucasian race thumb|200px|The 4th edition of [[Meyers Konversationslexikon (Leipzig, 1885-1890) shows the Caucasian race (in blue) as comprising Aryans, S...
    causal File:E innga kyo.jpg|thumb|320px|The Illustrated Sutra of Cause and Effect. 8th century, Japan Causality is the relationship between an eve...
    cauterization Cauterize redirects here. For the band, see Cauterize (band) The medical practice or technique of cauterization is a medical term describing...
    CBT-I Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) is a method for treating insomnia without (or alongside) medications.Components of CBT-ISt...
    CCL5 Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (also CCL5) is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CCL5 gene. It is also known as RANTES (Regulated ...
    CD14 Cluster of differentiation 14 also known as CD14 is a human gene.The protein encoded by this gene is a component of the innate immune system...
    centripetal obesity Abdominal obesity, colloquially known as belly fat or clinically as central obesity, is the accumulation of abdominal fat resulting in an i...
    chamomile Chamomile or Camomile ( or ) is a common name for several daisy-like plants. These plants are best known for their ability to be made int...
    chemotaxis Chemotaxis is the phenomenon in which bodily cells, bacteria, and other single-cell or multicellular organisms direct their movements accord...
    chemotherapy thumb|A woman being treated with [[docetaxel chemotherapy for breast cancer. Cold mittens and wine coolers are placed on her hands and feet ...
    Chemotherapy regimens Chemotherapy regimens are often identified with acronyms, identifying the agents used in combination. Unfortunately, the letters used are no...
    chest X-ray In medicine, a chest radiograph, commonly called a chest x-ray (CXR), is a projection radiograph of the chest used to diagnose conditions af...
    chiropractic Chiropractic is a health care discipline and profession that emphasizes diagnosis, treatment and prevention of mechanical disorders of the m...
    Chlamydia pneumoniae Chlamydophila pneumoniae is a species of Chlamydophila bacteria that infects humans and is a major cause of pneumonia.Previously known as th...
    chlorambucil Chlorambucil (marketed as Leukeran by GlaxoSmithKline) is a chemotherapy drug that has been mainly used in the treatment of chronic lymphocy...
    chlorination Chlorination is the process of adding the element chlorine to water as a method of water purification to make it fit for human consumption a...
    chloroquine Chloroquine () is a 4-aminoquinoline drug used in the treatment or prevention of malaria.HistoryChloroquine (CQ), N'-(7-chloroquinolin-4-yl)...
    chlorothiazide Chlorothiazide sodium (Diuril) is a diuretic used within the hospital setting or for personal use to manage excess fluid associated with con...
    cholesterol thumb|200px|right|Microscopic appearance of cholesterol crystals in water. Photo taken under [[polarized light.]]Cholesterol is a waxy stero...
    cholinergic thumb|right|200px|The N,N,N-trimethylethanolammonium cation, with an undefined counteranion, X<sup>&minus;</sup>thumb|right|...
    Chromosome 17 (human) 125px|rightChromosome 17 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. People normally have two copies of this chromosome. Chromosome 17 ...
    chronic (medical) In medicine, a chronic disease is a disease that is long-lasting or recurrent. The term chronic describes the course of the disease, or its...
    chronic (medicine) In medicine, a chronic disease is a disease that is long-lasting or recurrent. The term chronic describes the course of the disease, or its...
    chronic bronchitis Chronic bronchitis is a chronic inflammation of the bronchi (medium-size airways) in the lungs. It is generally considered one of the two fo...
    chronic kidney failure Chronic kidney disease (CKD), also known as chronic renal disease, is a progressive loss in renal function over a period of months or years....
    chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), also known as chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD), chronic obstructive airway disease (COA...
    cigarette thumb|250px|right|Two unlit, filtered [[F6 (cigarette)|f6 brand cigarettes from Germany.]]A cigarette (French: "small cigar", from...
    circadian rhythm thumb|400px|Some features of the human circadian biological clockA circadian rhythm is a roughly 24-hour cycle in the biochemical, physiolog...
    Circadian rhythm sleep disorder Circadian rhythm sleep disorders are a family of sleep disorders affecting, among other things, the timing of sleep. People with circadian r...
    Clemens von Pirquet Clemens Peter Freiherr von Pirquet (May 12, 1874&ndash;February 28, 1929) was an Austrian scientist and pediatrician best known for his ...
    clinical depression For other depressive disorders, see Mood disorder. Major depressive disorder (also known as recurrent depressive disorder, clinical depressi...
    clonidine Clonidine (Catapres) is a medication used to treat several medical conditions. It is a direct-acting ??<sub>2</sub> adrenergic a...
    coarctation of the aorta [[Image:Coarctation.png|thumb|right|Sketch showing heart with coarctation of the aorta. A: Coarctation (narrowing) of the aorta. 1:Inferior ...
    cocaine Cocaine (benzoylmethylecgonine) is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant. The name comes from &q...
    Cochrane collaboration The Cochrane Collaboration is a group of over 27,000 volunteers in more than 90 countries who review the effects of health care intervention...
    Cochrane review The Cochrane Collaboration is a group of over 27,000 volunteers in more than 90 countries who review the effects of health care intervention...
    cockroach Cockroaches are insects of the order Blattaria. The name derives from the Latinized Greek name for the insect (Doric Greek: ????????????, bl...
    Cognition Cognition is the scientific term for "the process of thought". Usage of the term varies in different disciplines; for example in p...
    Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) is a method for treating insomnia without (or alongside) medications.Components of CBT-ISt...
    Cognitive Behaviour Therapy Cognitive behavioral therapy (or cognitive behavioral therapies or CBT) is a psychotherapeutic approach, a talking therapy, that aims to sol...
    cohort study A cohort study or panel study is a form of longitudinal study (a type of observational study) used in medicine, econometrics, actuarial scie...
    colchicine Colchicine is a toxic natural product and secondary metabolite, originally extracted from plants of the genus Colchicum (autumn crocus, Colc...
    collagen thumb|right|99px|Tropocollagen triple helix.Collagen is a group of naturally occurring proteins. In nature, it is found exclusively in anima...
    colorimetry Colorimetry (British English: colourimetry) is "the science and technology used to quantify and describe physically the human color per...
    comorbidities In medicine, comorbidity (literally "additional morbidity") is either the presence of one or more disorders (or diseases) in addit...
    concordance (genetics) For other uses, see Concordance. Concordance as used in genetics usually means the presence of the same trait in both members of a pair of t...
    confusion __NOTOC__Confusion (from Latin confus??o, -??nis, noun of action from confundere "to pour together", also "to confuse") ...
    congestive heart failure Heart failure (HF) is generally defined as inability of the heart to supply sufficient blood flow to meet the body's needs. It has various d...
    conjugated equine estrogens Premarin is the commercial name for compound drug consisting primarily of conjugated estrogens. Isolated from mare's urine (PREgnant MARes' ...
    connective tissue Connective Tissue is a form of fibrous tissue.. It is one of the four types of tissue in traditional classifications (the others being epith...
    contact dermatitis Contact dermatitis is a term for a skin reaction (dermatitis) resulting from exposure to allergens (allergic contact dermatitis) or irritan...
    core biopsy thumb|Brain biopsyA biopsy is a medical test involving the removal of cells or tissues for examination. It is the medical removal of tissue ...
    coronary artery disease Coronary artery disease (CAD or atherosclerotic heart disease) is the end result of the accumulation of atheromatous plaques within the wall...
    corticosteroid thumb|245px|[[Corticosterone]]Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex. Corticosteroids are i...
    corticosteroids thumb|245px|[[Corticosterone]]Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex. Corticosteroids are i...
    cortisol Cortisol, also known as hydrocortisone, is a steroid hormone or glucocorticoid produced by the adrenal gland. It is released in response to ...
    cough A cough ( Latin: tussis) is a sudden and often repetitively occurring reflex which helps to clear the large breathing passages from secretio...
    coughing A cough ( Latin: tussis) is a sudden and often repetitively occurring reflex which helps to clear the large breathing passages from secretio...
    Creatinine Creatinine (from the Greek ??????????, flesh) is a break-down product of creatine phosphate in muscle, and is usually produced at a fairly c...
    Croatia Croatia (, ; ), officially the Republic of Croatia (Croatian: Republika Hrvatska ), is a country in Central Europe at the crossroads of the...
    cromolyn sodium Cromoglicic acid (INN) (also referred to as cromolyn (USAN), cromoglycate (former BAN), or cromoglicate) is traditionally described as a mas...
    croup Croup (or laryngotracheobronchitis) is a respiratory condition that is usually triggered by an acute viral infection of the upper airway. T...
    CTLA-4 CTLA4 (Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Antigen 4) also known as CD152 (Cluster of differentiation 152) is a protein that plays an important regulator...
    Cushing's syndrome Cushing's syndrome (also called hyperadrenocorticism or hypercorticism) is a hormone (endocrine) disorder caused by high levels of cortisol...
    cyanosis Cyanosis is a blue coloration of the skin and mucous membranes due to the presence of greater than, or equal to, 5 g/dL of deoxygenated hemo...
    cycling thumb|right|Protesters cycling in [[Chamonix in 2003.|alt=A road full of bicyclists.]]thumb|right|Police officer on a bicycle in [[El Salvad...
    cyclopamine Cyclopamine (11-deoxojervine) is a naturally-occurring chemical that belongs to the group of steroidal jerveratrum alkaloids. It is a terato...
    cyclophosphamide Cyclophosphamide (the generic name for Endoxan, Cytoxan, Neosar, Procytox, Revimmune), also known as cytophosphane, is a nitrogen mustard al...
    cyclosporine Ciclosporin (INN, ), cyclosporine (USAN), cyclosporin (former BAN) or cyclosporin A, is an immunosuppressant drug widely used in post-alloge...
    Cyproheptadine Cyproheptadine (brand name Periactin) ; usually as cyproheptadine hydrochloride is an antihistaminic/anticholinergic and antiserotonergic ag...
    cytokine Cytokines (Greek cyto-, cell; and -kinos, movement) are small cell-signaling protein molecules that are secreted by the glial cells of the n...
    cytokines Cytokines (Greek cyto-, cell; and -kinos, movement) are small cell-signaling protein molecules that are secreted by the glial cells of the n...
    cytotoxic Cytotoxicity is the quality of being toxic to cells. Examples of toxic agents are a chemical substance, an immune cell or some types of veno...
    dactylitis Dactylitis or sausage digit is inflammation of an entire digit (a finger or toe), and can be painful.The word dactyl comes from the Greek wo...
    dander Dander is material shed from the body of various animals, similar to dandruff. It may contain scales of dried skin and hair, or feathers. It...
    dandruff Pityriasis simplex capillitii (commonly known as "dandruff") is the shedding of dead skin cells from the scalp (not to be confused...
    dapsone Dapsone (diamino-diphenyl sulfone) is a medication most commonly used in combination with rifampicin and clofazimine as multidrug therapy (M...
    DASH diet The DASH diet (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) is a diet promoted by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (part of the NIH...
    death thumb|150px|upright|The human [[skull (symbolism)|skull is a universal symbol for death.]]Death is the termination of the biological functio...
    decongestant A decongestant or nasal decongestant is a type of drug which is used to relieve nasal congestion.PharmacologyThe vast majority of decongesta...
    decreased libido Libido in its common usage means sexual desire; however more technical definitions, such as those found in the work of Carl Jung, are more g...
    deformity thumb|220px|A deformed sucker cluster on an arm of an [[octopus]]A deformity, dysmorphism, or dysmorphic feature is a major difference in th...
    degranulation thumb|300px|right|The degranulation process in a Mast cell. 1 = [[antigen; 2 = IgE; 3 = Fc??RI; 4 = preformed mediators (histamine, protease...
    dehydration Dehydration (hypohydration) is defined as an excessive loss of body fluid. It is literally the removal of water () from an object, however i...
    dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate or DHEA sulfate is a metabolite of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) produced by the addition of a sulfate group,...
    deja vu D??j?? vu (, meaning "already seen") is the experience of feeling sure that one has already witnessed or experienced a current sit...
    delayed sleep phase syndrome Delayed sleep-phase syndrome (DSPS), also known as delayed sleep-phase disorder (DSPD) or delayed sleep-phase type (DSPT), is a circadian rh...
    Delta sleep-inducing peptide Delta sleep-inducing peptide, abbreviated DSIP, is a neuropeptide that when infused into the mesodiencephalic ventricle ofrecipient rabbits ...
    dementia Dementia (taken from Latin, originally meaning "madness", from de- "without" + ment, the root of mens "mind") ...
    dendritic cells thumb|A dendritic cellthumb|Dendritic cells in skinDendritic cells (DCs) are immune cells that form part of the mammalian immune system. The...
    Depression (differential diagnoses) thumb|260px|Neuroimaging can be a valuable tool in the diagnostic work-up of various psychiatric disorders including depression. Depression,...
    Depression (economics) In economics, a depression is a sustained, long-term downturn in economic activity in one or more economies. It is a more severe downturn th...
    Depression (geology) Depression in geology is a landform sunken or depressed below the surrounding area. Depressions may be formed by various mechanisms, and may...
    Depression (kinesiology) Depression, in kinesiology, is the anatomical term of motion for movement in an inferior direction.It is the opposite of elevation.This term...
    Depression (physiology) Depression in physiology and medicine refers to a lowering, in particular a reduction in a particular biological variable or the function of...
    dermatologist Dermatology is the branch of medicine dealing with the skin and its diseases, A dermatologist takes care of diseases, in the widest sense, a...
    Dermatology Dermatology is the branch of medicine dealing with the skin and its diseases, A dermatologist takes care of diseases, in the widest sense, a...
    dermis thumb|250px|right|A graphic representation of the interface between [[skin epithelium and the underlying connective tissue. Zone B, indicat...
    Desensitization (medicine) For medical purposes, desensitization is a method to reduce or eliminate an organism's negative reaction to a substance or stimulus. For e...
    desoximetasone Desoximetasone is the medication belonging to the family of medications known as topical corticosteroids. It is used for the relief of vario...
    developed country thumb|350px|Developed countries are shown in blue (According to the [[IMF, as of 2008).]]The term developed country is used to describe coun...
    dietary supplement A dietary supplement, also known as food supplement or nutritional supplement, is a preparation intended to supplement the diet and provide ...
    dieting thumb|Measuring body weight on a [[weighing scale|scale]]Dieting is the practice of ingesting food in a regulated fashion to achieve or main...
    differential diagnosis A differential diagnosis (sometimes abbreviated DDx, ddx, DD, D/Dx, or ????) is a systematic method used to identify unknowns. This method, ...
    Digestion Digestion is the mechanical and chemical breaking down of food into smaller components that can be absorbed into a blood stream, for instanc...
    diphenhydramine Diphenhydramine hydrochloride (, abbreviated DPH or DHM) is a first generation antihistamine mainly used to treat allergies. Like most othe...
    Diplopia Diplopia, commonly known as double vision, is the simultaneous perception of two images of a single object. These images may be displaced ho...
    disulfide thumb|right|General structure of disulfidesIn chemistry, a disulfide usually refers to the structural unit composed of a linked pair of sulf...
    dithranol Dithranol (INN) or Anthralin (USAN and former BAN) is a Hydroxyanthrone, anthracene derivative, medicine applied to the skin of people with ...
    diuretic thumb|300px|right|This illustration shows where some types of diuretics act, and what they do.A diuretic is any drug that elevates the rate ...
    DNA microarrays thumb|350px|Example of an approximately 40,000 probe spotted oligo microarray with enlarged inset to show detail.For terminology, see glossa...
    DNA repair genes frame|right|DNA damage resulting in multiple broken chromosomes DNA repair refers to a collection of processes by which a cell identifies a...
    doctor fish Doctor fish is the name given to two species of fish: Garra rufa and Cyprinion macrostomus. Other nicknames include nibble fish, kangal fish...
    doxepin Doxepin ( ) is a psychotropic agent with tricyclic antidepressant and anxiolytic properties, known under many brand-names such as Aponal, th...
    doxorubicin Doxorubicin (INN, ; trade name Adriamycin; also known as hydroxydaunorubicin) is a drug used in cancer chemotherapy. It is an anthracycline ...
    doxylamine Doxylamine is one of the many sedating antihistamines used by itself as a short-term sedative, and in combination with other drugs as a nigh...
    drug tolerance In physiology, physiological tolerance or drug tolerance is commonly encountered in pharmacology, when a subject's reaction to a drug (such ...
    Drug-induced psoriasis Drug-induced psoriasis may be induced by beta-blockers, lithium, antimalarials, terbinafine, calcium channel blockers, captopril, glyburide,...
    dry powder inhaler A Dry powder inhaler (DPI) is a device that delivers medication to the lungs in the form of a dry powder. DPIs are commonly used to treat r...
    duct (anatomy) In anatomy and physiology, a duct is a circumscribed channel leading from an exocrine gland or organ.Types of ductsExamples include: |}Duc...
    dust thumb|A [[dust storm blankets Texas homes, in 1935.]]Dust is a general name for solid particles with diameters less than 20 thou (500 micro...
    dystonia Dystonia is a neurological movement disorder, in which sustained muscle contractions cause twisting and repetitive movements or abnormal pos...
    eczema Eczema is a form of dermatitis, or inflammation of the epidermis (the outer layer of the skin). In England, an estimated 5,773,700 or about ...
    edema Edema (American English) or oedema (British English; both words from the Greek , o??d??ma "swelling"), formerly known as dropsy or...
    Edwin Smith Papyrus thumb|Plates vi & vii of the Edwin Smith Papyrus at the Rare Book Room, [[New York Academy of Medicine]]The Edwin Smith Papyrus is an An...
    EEG biofeedback Neurofeedback (NFB), also called neurotherapy, neurobiofeedback or EEG biofeedback is a type of biofeedback that uses realtime displays of e...
    efalizumab Efalizumab (trade name Raptiva, Genentech, Merck Serono) is a medication designed to treat psoriasis. As implied by the suffix -zumab, it is...
    effectiveness Effectiveness means the capability of producing an effect. In mathematics, effective is sometimes used as a synonym of algorithmically comp...
    Effexor Venlafaxine (Effexor, Efexor) is an antidepressant of the serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) class. First introduced by Wyet...
    Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Ehlers???Danlos syndrome (EDS) (also known as "Cutis hyperelastica") is a group of inherited connective tissue disorders, caused b...
    Elbow-joint The elbow is the region surrounding the elbow-joint???the ginglymus or hinge joint in the middle of the arm. Three bones form the elbow join...
    Electrocardiogram Image:12leadECG.jpg|thumb|325px|12 Lead ECG of a 26-year-old male. Image:ECGcolor.svg|thumb|right|180px|Image showing a patient connected to...
    Enbrel Etanercept (trade name Enbrel) is a drug that treats autoimmune diseases by interfering with the tumor necrosis factor (TNF, a part of the i...
    endocrine right|thumb|227px|Major endocrine glands. ([[Male on the left, female on the right.) 1. Pineal gland 2. Pituitary gland 3. Thyroid gland 5. ...
    endocrine disease Endocrine diseases are disorders of the endocrine system. The branch of medicine associated with endocrine disorders is known as endocrinolo...
    endocrine disruptor Endocrine disruptors are exogenous substances usually xenoestrogens that "interfere with the synthesis, secretion, transport, binding, ...
    endocrine system right|thumb|227px|Major endocrine glands. ([[Male on the left, female on the right.) 1. Pineal gland 2. Pituitary gland 3. Thyroid gland 5. ...
    endometrial carcinoma Endometrial cancer refers to several types of malignancies that arise from the endometrium, or lining, of the uterus. Endometrial cancers ar...
    endometrial hyperplasia Endometrial hyperplasia is a condition of excessive proliferation of the cells of the endometrium, or inner lining of the uterus. Most case...
    endothelial thumb|229px||right|Diagram showing the location of endothelial cellsthumb|229px|right|Endothelial cells, which form the [[tunica intima, enc...
    endotoxin Endotoxins (not to be confused with enterotoxin) are toxins associated with certain bacteria . An "endotoxin" is a toxin that is a...
    enzyme potentiated desensitization Enzyme potentiated desensitization, or EPD, is a treatment for allergies developed in the 1960s by Dr. Len McEwen in the United Kingdom. EPD...
    enzymes thumb|300px|right|Human [[glyoxalase I. Two zinc ions that are needed for the enzyme to catalyze its reaction are shown as purple spheres, a...
    eosinophil thumb|250px|Eosinophil under the microscope (40x) from a peripheral [[Blood film|blood smear. Red blood cells surround the eosinophil, two p...
    epidemiology Epidemiology is the study of patterns of health and illness and associated factors at the population level. It is the cornerstone method of ...
    epidermis (skin) thumb|Epidermis, delimited by vertical black bar.thumb|[[Optical coherence tomography of fingertip]]The epidermis is the outer layer of the ...
    epinephrine Epinephrine (also known as adrenaline) is a hormone and neurotransmitter. It increases heart rate, contracts blood vessels, dilates air pass...
    epistasis Epistasis is the phenomenon where the effects of one gene are modified by one or several other genes, which are sometimes called modifier ge...
    epithelial cell thumb|350px|Types of epitheliumEpithelium is a tissue composed of cells that line the cavities and surfaces of structures throughout the bod...
    Eplivanserin Eplivanserin (SR-46,349; planned trade name Ciltyri) was an experimental drug for the treatment of insomnia which was being developed by San...
    essential (primary) hypertension Essential hypertension (also called primary or idiopathic hypertension) is the form of hypertension that by definition, has no identifiable ...
    essential hypertension Essential hypertension (also called primary or idiopathic hypertension) is the form of hypertension that by definition, has no identifiable ...
    estradiol Estradiol (E2 or 17??-estradiol) (also oestradiol) is a sex hormone. Estradiol is the predominant sex hormone present in females. It is also...
    estrogen receptor Estrogen receptor refers to a group of receptors that are activated by the hormone 17??-estradiol (estrogen). Two types of estrogen receptor...
    Etiology Etiology (alternatively aetiology, aitiology) is the study of causation, or origination. The word is derived from the Greek , aitiologia, &q...
    excisional biopsy thumb|Brain biopsyA biopsy is a medical test involving the removal of cells or tissues for examination. It is the medical removal of tissue ...
    Exercise hypertension Exercise hypertension is an excessive rise in blood pressure during exercise. Many of those with exercise hypertension have spikes in systol...
    exercise-induced asthma Exercise-induced asthma, or E.I.A., is a medical condition characterized by shortness of breath induced by sustained aerobic exercise. It sh...
    extensor thumb|right|Anatomical planes in a human. Extension usually occurs in the sagittal plane when the body is in the [[anatomical position]]thum...
    external beam radiotherapy thumb|Radiation therapy of the [[pelvis. Lasers and a mould under the legs are used to determine exact position.]]thumb|Historical image sho...
    Extracellular signal-regulated kinases In molecular biology, extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) or classical MAP kinases are widely expressed protein kinase intracellul...
    extractable nuclear antigen Extractable Nuclear Antigens are soluble cytoplasmic and nuclear components that are antibody targets with over 100 different antigens descr...
    fabricators thumb|A typical steel fabrication shopthumb|A set of six-axis [[robot welding|welding robots.]]Fabrication as an industrial term refers to b...
    faeces thumb|right|[[Horse feces]]Feces, faeces, or f??ces (see spelling differences) is a waste product from an animal's digestive tract expelled ...
    failure to thrive Failure to thrive (FTT) is a medical term which is used in both pediatric and adult medicine.When not more precisely defined, the term refer...
    Familial Mediterranean fever Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF) is a hereditary inflammatory disorderEpidemiologyFMF affects groups of people originating from around the...
    family history (medicine) In medicine, a family history consists of information about disorders from which the direct blood relatives of the patient have suffered. Ge...
    fatal familial insomnia Fatal familial insomnia (FFI) is a very rare autosomal dominant inherited prion disease of the brain. It is almost always caused by a mutati...
    Fatigue (physical) Fatigue (also called exhaustion, lethargy, languidness, languor, lassitude, and listlessness) is a state of awareness describing a range of ...
    Fc receptor thumb|220px|right|Schematic diagram showing Fc receptor interaction with an antibody-coated microbial pathogenAn Fc receptor is a protein fo...
    fecal-oral route The fecal-oral route, or alternatively, the oral-fecal route or orofecal route is a route of transmission of diseases, in which they are pas...
    fecundity Fecundity, derived from the word fecund, generally refers to the ability to reproduce. In demography, fecundity is the potential reproducti...
    Femarelle Femarelle (DT56a) is as a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) for the treatment of menopause and bone health. DT56a is a standardiz...
    Femarelle (DT56a) Femarelle (DT56a) is as a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) for the treatment of menopause and bone health. DT56a is a standardiz...
    Ferdinand Ritter von Hebra Ferdinand Ritter von Hebra (Ferdinand Karl Franz Schwarzmann Hebra) was an Austrian physician and dermatologist, (7 September 1816, in Brno,...
    fertility Fertility is the natural capability of giving life. As a measure, "fertility rate" is the number of children born per couple, pers...
    Fever Fever (also known as pyrexia or controlled hyperthermia) is a common medical sign characterized by an elevation of temperature above the nor...
    fibroadenoma Fibroadenomas of the breast are small, solid, rubbery, noncancerous, harmless lumps composed of fibrous and glandular tissue. Because breast...
    fibrocystic breast changes Fibrocystic breast changes or fibrocystic breast disease is a condition of breast tissue affecting an estimated 30-60% of women. It is char...
    fibromyalgia Fibromyalgia (new Latin, fibro-, fibrous tissues, Gk. myo-, muscle, Gk. algos-, pain, meaning muscle and connective tissue pain; also referr...
    fight-or-flight response The "fight-or-flight response", also called the "fight-or-flight-or-freeze response", the "fright, fight or flight ...
    Finger tip unit In medicine, a finger tip unit (FTU) is defined as the amount of ointment, cream or other semi-solid dosage form expressed from a tube with ...
    Fitness (biology) Fitness (often denoted w in population genetics models) is a central idea in evolution|evolutionary theory. It can be defined e...
    flexibility (anatomy) thumb|[[Split (gymnastics)|Oversplit]]thumb|[[Stretching cat]]Flexibility refers to the absolute range of movement in a joint or series of j...
    flunitrazepam Flunitrazepam () is marketed as a potent hypnotic and powerful sedative, anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, amnestic, and skeletal muscle relaxant ...
    fluocinonide Fluocinonide (Fluonex, Lidex, Lidex-E, Lonide, Lyderm, and Vanos) is a potent glucocorticoid steroid used topically as anti-inflammatory age...
    fluoroquinolone thumb|Essential structure of all quinolone antibiotics: the blue drawn remainder of R is usually [[piperazine; if the connection contains fl...
    fluoroquinolone toxicity The adverse effects of fluoroquinolones are the negative and sometimes serious effects which may occur as a result of fluoroquinolone use. T...
    fluorouracil Fluorouracil (5-FU or f5U) (sold under the brand names Adrucil, Carac, Efudex and Fluoroplex) is a drug that is a pyrimidine analog which i...
    Fluoxetine hydrochloride thumb|right|Fluoxetine 20 mg capsulesFluoxetine (also known by the tradenames Prozac, Sarafem) is an antidepressant of the selective seroton...
    flurazepam Flurazepam (marketed under the brand names Dalmane and Dalmadorm) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. It possesses anxiolytic, a...
    follicle stimulating hormone Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is a hormone found in humans and other animals. It is synthesized and secreted by gonadotrophs of the ant...
    food allergy A food allergy is an adverse immune response to a food protein. They are distinct from other adverse responses to food, such as food intole...
    formication Formication is the medical term for a sensation that resembles that of insects crawling on (or under) the skin. It is one specific form of a...
    Fowler's solution Fowler's solution is a solution containing potassium arsenite that once was prescribed as a remedy or a tonic. A Dr. Fowler of Stafford, En...
    Framingham Heart Study The Framingham Heart Study is a long-term, ongoing cardiovascular study on residents of the town of Framingham, Massachusetts. The study be...
    Franklin D. Roosevelt Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882 ??? April 12, 1945; ; also known by his initials, FDR) was the 32nd President of the United Sta...
    FSH FSH may refer to: Follicle-stimulating hormone Fox Sports Houston, a regional Fox Sports Net affiliate station for the Houston, Texas area ...
    fumaric acid Fumaric acid or trans-butenedioic acid is the chemical compound with the formula HO<sub>2</sub>CCH=CHCO<sub>2</sub>H...
    fungal infection Mycosis (plural: Mycoses) is a condition in which fungi pass the resistance barriers of the human or animal body and establish infections. M...
    GABAA receptor thumb|right|400px|Structure of the [[nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAchR: ) which is very similar to the GABA<sub>A</sub> re...
    gait abnormality Gait abnormality is a deviation from normal walking (gait). Watching a patient walk is the most important part of the neurological examinati...
    Galen thumb|"Claude Galien". Lithograph by Pierre Roche Vigneron. (Paris: Lith de Gregoire et Deneux, ca. 1865)Aelius Galenus or Claudiu...
    gametes A gamete (from Ancient Greek ?????????????? gametes "husband" / ???????????? gamete "wife") is a cell that fuses with an...
    Gastro-esophageal reflux disease Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD), gastric reflux disease, or acid reflux disease is defined...
    gene A gene is a unit of heredity in a living organism. It normally resides on a stretch of DNA that codes for a type of protein or for an RNA c...
    General Medical Council The General Medical Council (GMC) registers and regulates doctors in the United Kingdom. It has the power to revoke the registration, or pl...
    general medicine A general practitioner or GP is a medical practitioner who treats acute and chronic illnesses and provides preventive care and health educat...
    generalized anxiety disorder Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is an anxiety disorder that is characterized by excessive, uncontrollable and often irrational worry abo...
    Generalized pustular psoriasis Generalized pustular psoriasis (also known as "Pustular psoriasis of von Zumbusch") is a distinctive acute variant of psoriasis, c...
    genes A gene is a unit of heredity in a living organism. It normally resides on a stretch of DNA that codes for a type of protein or for an RNA c...
    genetic association Studies concerning genetic association aim to test whether single-locus alleles or genotype frequencies (or more generally, multilocus haplo...
    genetics Genetics (from Ancient Greek ', ???genitive??? and that from ', ???origin???), a discipline of biology, is the science of genes, heredity,...
    genitals thumb|180px|Flowers are the sex organs of flowering plants.A sex organ, or primary sexual characteristic, as narrowly defined, is any of the...
    genotype thumb|right|300px|Here the relation between genotype and phenotype is illustrated, using a [[Punnett square, for the character of petal colo...
    glucocorticoid thumb|right|250px|Chemical structure of [[cortisol, a glucocorticoid]]thumb|right|250px|[[Dexamethasone binds more powerfully to the glucoco...
    glucocorticoids thumb|right|250px|Chemical structure of [[cortisol, a glucocorticoid]]thumb|right|250px|[[Dexamethasone binds more powerfully to the glucoco...
    Glutathione S-transferase Mu 1 Glutathione S-transferase Mu 1 (gene name GSTM1) is a human glutathione S-transferase. ReferencesFurther readin...
    Glycine Glycine (abbreviated as Gly or G) is an organic compound with the formula NH<sub>2</sub>CH<sub>2</sub>COOH. With onl...
    Gout Gout (also known as podagra when it involves the big toe) is a medical condition usually characterized by recurrent attacks of acute inflamm...
    Grandmother hypothesis The grandmother hypothesis is a theory to explain why menopause, rare in mammal species, arose in human evolution and how a long post-fertil...
    granule Granule is a generic term used for a small particle or grain. The generic term is employed in a variety of specific contexts. Granule (sola...
    Greene Menopause Index The Greene Menopause Index also known as the Greene Climateric Scale is a questionnaire, a tool used by researchers to study the symptoms of...
    Grenz rays Grenz Rays are a type of ultrasoft radiation waves used in the treatment of skin conditions such as dermatitis, warts, psoriasis and hand ec...
    growth factor A growth factor is a naturally occurring substance capable of stimulating cellular growth, proliferation and cellular differentiation. Usual...
    growth hormone excess Acromegaly (; from Greek ?????????? akros "extreme" or "extremities" and ?????????????? megalos "large") is a...
    GSTP1 Glutathione S-transferase P is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the GSTP1 gene.InteractionsGSTP1 has been shown to interact with Fanco...
    guilt Guilt is a cognitive or an emotional experience that occurs when a person realizes or believes&mdash;accurately or not&mdash;that he...
    guppy The guppy (), also known as the millionfish, is one of the most popular freshwater aquarium fish species in the world. It is a small member ...
    gut flora thumb|right|[[Escherichia coli, one of the many species of bacteria present in the human gut.]]Gut flora consists of microorganisms that liv...
    Guttate psoriasis Guttate psoriasis (also known as "Eruptive psoriasis") presents as small (0.5-1.5 cm in diameter) lesions over the upper trunk and...
    Haemochromatosis In medicine, iron overload indicates accumulation of iron in the body due to any cause.TerminologyHaemochromatosis or haemosiderosisHistoric...
    hapten A hapten is a small molecule that can elicit an immune response only when attached to a large carrier such as a protein; the carrier may be ...
    hardware performance counter In computers, hardware performance counters, or hardware counters are a set of special-purpose registers built into modern microprocessors t...
    hay fever Allergic rhinitis, pollenosis or hay fever is an allergic inflammation of the nasal airways.It occurs when an allergen such as pollen or dus...
    Health effects of tobacco smoking The health effects of tobacco are the circumstances, mechanisms, and factors of tobacco consumption on human health. Epidemiological researc...
    heart disease Heart disease or cardiopathy is an umbrella term for a variety of diseases affecting the heart. As of 2007, it is the leading cause of death...
    heart failure Heart failure (HF) is generally defined as inability of the heart to supply sufficient blood flow to meet the body's needs. It has various d...
    heart palpitations A palpitation is an abnormality of heartbeat that causes a conscious awareness of its beating, whether it is too slow, too fast, irregular, ...
    heart problems Heart disease or cardiopathy is an umbrella term for a variety of diseases affecting the heart. As of 2007, it is the leading cause of death...
    Helicobacter pylori Helicobacter pylori () is a Gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium that can inhabit various areas of the stomach, particularly the antrum....
    Heliox Heliox is a breathing gas composed of a mixture of helium (He) and oxygen (O<sub>2</sub>).Heliox has been used medically since t...
    Helminthic therapy thumb|border|250px|alt=A larva under a microscope resembling a worm with one end across the other|Infectious Necator americanus L3 Larva.<...
    Hepatitis Hepatitis (plural hepatitides) is an inflammation of the liver characterized by the presence of inflammatory cells in the tissue of the orga...
    hepatitis A Hepatitis A (formerly known as infectious hepatitis) is an acute infectious disease of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV), whic...
    herbal medicine Herbalism is a traditional medicinal or folk medicine practice based on the use of plants and plant extracts. Herbalism is also known as bo...
    hexamethonium Hexamethonium is a ganglionic blocker, a neuronal nACh (N<sub>N</sub>) receptor antagonist that acts in autonomic ganglia by bin...
    hierarchy A hierarchy (Greek: hierarchia (?????????????????), from hierarches, "leader of sacred rites") is an arrangement of items (objects...
    Hipocrates Hippocrates of Cos or Hippokrates of Kos (ca. 460 BC ??? ca. 370 BC) - Greek: ; Hippokr??t??s was an ancient Greek physician of the Age of ...
    hippocampus The hippocampus is a major component of the brains of humans and other mammals. It belongs to the limbic system and plays important roles ...
    Hippocrates Hippocrates of Cos or Hippokrates of Kos (ca. 460 BC ??? ca. 370 BC) - Greek: ; Hippokr??t??s was an ancient Greek physician of the Age of ...
    histamine Histamine is an organic nitrogen compound involved in local immune responses as well as regulating physiological function in the gut and act...
    Histopathology Image:MI_with_contraction_bands_very_high_mag.jpg|thumb|right|350px|Micrograph showing contraction band necrosis, a histopathologic finding ...
    HLA-DQB1 Major histocompatibility complex, class II, DQ beta 1, also known as HLA-DQB1, is a human gene and also denotes the genetic locus that conta...
    HLA-DRB1 HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DRB1-9 beta chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DRB1 gene.<ref name = "...
    homeopathy Homeopathy (also spelled homoeopathy or hom??opathy) is a form of alternative medicine, first proposed by German physician Samuel Hahnemann ...
    Homology (biology) right|thumb|350px|[[Forelimbs in mammals provide one example of homology.]]A homologous<ref group=Etymology>from Greek ???????????????...
    hops thumb|right|Hop cone in the [[Hallertau, Germany, hop yard]]Hops are the female flower clusters (commonly called seed cones or strobiles), o...
    hormonal right|thumb|180px|[[Epinephrine (adrenaline), a catecholamine-type hormone]]A hormone (from Greek ????????? - "impetus") is a chem...
    hormonal therapy Hormone therapy, or hormonal therapy is the use of hormones in medical treatment. Treatment with hormone antagonists may also referred to as...
    Hormonal therapy (oncology) Hormonal therapy is one of the major modalities of medical treatment for cancer, others being cytotoxic chemotherapy and targeted therapy (b...
    hormone right|thumb|180px|[[Epinephrine (adrenaline), a catecholamine-type hormone]]A hormone (from Greek ????????? - "impetus") is a chem...
    Hormone replacement therapy (menopause) Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is a system of medical treatment for surgically menopausal, perimenopausal and to a lesser extent postmeno...
    hormone therapy Hormone therapy, or hormonal therapy is the use of hormones in medical treatment. Treatment with hormone antagonists may also referred to as...
    Host (biology) In biology, a host is an organism that harbors a parasite (that is, a virus, a bacterium, a protozoan, or a fungus), or a mutual or commensa...
    hot flash Hot flashes (also known as hot flushes, or night sweats if they happen at night) are a symptom of the changing hormone levels that are consi...
    house dust mite The house dust mite (sometimes referred to by allergists as HDM), is a cosmopolitan guest in human habitation. Dust mites feed on organic de...
    Humira Adalimumab (HUMIRA, Abbott) is the third TNF inhibitor, after infliximab and etanercept, to be approved in the United States. Like inflixim...
    hydralazine Hydralazine (Apresoline) is a direct-acting smooth muscle relaxant used to treat hypertension by acting as a vasodilator primarily in arteri...
    hydrochlorothiazide Hydrochlorothiazide, abbreviated HCTZ, HCT, or HZT, is a first line diuretic drug of the thiazide class that acts by inhibiting the kidneys'...
    hydrocodone Hydrocodone or dihydrocodeinone is a semi-synthetic opioid derived from either of two naturally occurring opiates???codeine and thebaine. H...
    hydrogen bonding thumbnail|300px|An example of intermolecular hydrogen bonding in a [[molecular self-assembly|self-assembled dimer complex reported by Meijer...
    hydrophilic A hydrophile, from the Greek (hydros) "water" and ?????????? (philia) "love," is a molecule or other molecular entity th...
    hydroxyurea Hydroxycarbamide (INN) or hydroxyurea (brand names include Hydrea and Droxia) is an antineoplastic drug, first synthesized in 1869, used in...
    hygiene hypothesis In medicine, the hygiene hypothesis is a hypothesis that states that a lack of early childhood exposure to infectious agents, symbiotic micr...
    Hyperimmunoglobulinemia D with recurrent fever Hyperimmunoglobulinemia D with recurrent fever (commonly abbreviated as HIDS) is a periodic fever syndrome originally described in 1984 by t...
    hypersensitivity Hypersensitivity (also called hypersensitivity reaction) refers to undesirable (damaging, discomfort-producing and sometimes fatal) reaction...
    hypertension Hypertension (HTN) or high blood pressure is a chronic medical condition in which the systemic arterial blood pressure is elevated. It is th...
    hypertensive encephalopathy Hypertensive encephalopathy is a neurological dysfunction induced by malignant hypertension. The term "hypertensive encephalopathy"...
    Hypertensive nephropathy Hypertensive nephropathy (or "hypertensive nephrosclerosis", or "Hypertensive renal disease") is a medical condition ref...
    Hypertensive retinopathy Hypertensive retinopathy is damage to the retina due to high blood pressure (i.e. hypertension).PathophysiologyThe retina is one of the &quo...
    hyperthyroidism Hyperthyroidism is the term for overactive tissue within the thyroid gland causing an overproduction of thyroid hormones (thyroxine or "...
    hypnotic For the state of mind see Hypnosis. Hypnotic (also called soporific) drugs are a class of psychoactives whose primary function is to induce...
    hyposensitization Allergen immunotherapy (also termed hyposensitization therapy, immunologic desensitization or allergen-specific immunotherapy) is a form of ...
    hypotension In physiology and medicine, hypotension is abnormally low blood pressure. This is best understood as a physiologic state, rather than a dise...
    hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA or HTPA axis), also known as the limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (LHPA axis) and, o...
    hypothesis A hypothesis (from Greek '; plural hypotheses) is a proposed explanation for an observable phenomenon. The term derives from the Greek, ???...
    hypothyroidism Hypothyroidism (pronounced ) is a deficiency of thyroid hormone in humans and other vertebrates. It can be due to an abnormality in the thy...
    hypoxia (medical) Hypoxia is a pathological condition in which the body as a whole (generalized hypoxia) or a region of the body (tissue hypoxia) is deprived ...
    Ian Gibson Ian Gibson may refer to:Ian Gibson (artist), British artist of comic books Ian Gibson (author) (born 1939), historian and hispanist Ian Gibs...
    IBS Software Services IBS Software Services is a company that creates business products and services in airline passenger services, airline and airport operations...
    ICD The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides ...
    Ichthyosis bullosa of Siemens Ichthyosis bullosa of Siemens is a rare skin disorder which is a type of familial, autosomal dominant ichthyosis. HistoryIchthyosis bullosa ...
    ichthyotherapy Ichthyotherapy can be defined as the use of fresh water or marine organisms, or "fish", as agents of skin wound/condition cleansin...
    Ideal body size The figure rating scale is a psychometric scale developed in the 1950s as a tool to determine body dissatisfaction in women, men, and childr...
    Identity by type Alleles have identity by type (IBT) when they have the same phenotypic effect, or if applied to a variation in the composition of DNA such a...
    idiopathic Idiopathic is an adjective used primarily in medicine meaning arising spontaneously or from an obscure or unknown cause. From Greek ????????...
    idiosyncratic Idiosyncrasy, from Ancient Greek , idiosynkras??a, "a peculiar temperament", "habit of body" (, idios "one's own&qu...
    IgE thumb|The role of mast cells in the development of allergy.thumb|Degranulation processes 1 - antigen; 2 - IgE antibody; 3 - Fc??RI receptor;...
    IgG 200px|thumb|right|Drawing of an IgG antibody - the two heavy chains are seen in <font color=red>red</font>, the two light chains...
    immune response thumb|right|250px|A [[scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange).]]An immune sy...
    immune surveillance thumb|right|250px|A [[scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange).]]An immune sy...
    immune system thumb|right|250px|A [[scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange).]]An immune sy...
    immune tolerance Immune tolerance or immunological tolerance is the process by which the immune system does not attack an antigen. It can be either 'natural'...
    immune-mediated disease Immune-mediated diseases are conditions which result from abnormal activity of the body's immune system. The immune system may over-react (f...
    immunoassay An immunoassay is a biochemical test that measures the presence or concentration of a substance in solutions that frequently contain a compl...
    immunoglobulin E thumb|The role of mast cells in the development of allergy.thumb|Degranulation processes 1 - antigen; 2 - IgE antibody; 3 - Fc??RI receptor;...
    immunologist Immunology is a broad branch of biomedical science that covers the study of all aspects of the immune system in all organisms. It deals with...
    immunology Immunology is a broad branch of biomedical science that covers the study of all aspects of the immune system in all organisms. It deals with...
    immunosuppressant An immunosuppressant is any substance that performs immunosuppression of the immune system. They may be either exogenous, as immunosuppressi...
    immunosuppressive drug For a list of immunosuppressive drugs, see the transplant rejection page. Immunosuppressive drugs or immunosuppressive agents are drugs that...
    impaired glucose tolerance Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) is a pre-diabetic state of dysglycemia that is associated with insulin resistance and increased risk of car...
    Impetigo herpetiformis Impetigo herpetiformis is a form of severe pustular psoriasis occurring in pregnancy See also Dermatoses of pregnancy List of cutaneous co...
    incidence Incidence may refer to: Incidence (epidemiology), a measure of the risk of developing some new condition within a specified period of time ...
    incidence (epidemiology) Incidence is a measure of the risk of developing some new condition within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed...
    incidence rate Incidence is a measure of the risk of developing some new condition within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed...
    inclusive fitness In evolutionary biology and evolutionary psychology, inclusive fitness is the sum of an organism's classical fitness (how many of its own of...
    Industrialisation 250px|thumb|A [[Watt steam engine, the steam engine fuelled primarily by coal that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Great Britain and ...
    industrialization 250px|thumb|A [[Watt steam engine, the steam engine fuelled primarily by coal that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Great Britain and ...
    industrialized countries thumb|350px|Developed countries are shown in blue (According to the [[IMF, as of 2008).]]The term developed country is used to describe coun...
    infants An infant or baby is the very young offspring of humans. A newborn is an infant who is within hours, days, or up to a few weeks from birth....
    infection An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by parasite species. Infecting parasites seek to utilize the host's resource...
    Infectious arthritis Septic arthritis is the purulent invasion of a joint by an infectious agent which produces arthritis. It is worth noting that people with ar...
    inflammation thumb|250px|right|Toes inflamed by [[Chilblains]]Inflammation (Latin, inflammare, to set on fire) is part of the complex biological response...
    inflammatory arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, systemic inflammatory disorder that may affect many tissues and organs, but principally attacks syn...
    Inflammatory bowel disease In medicine, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of inflammatory conditions of the colon and small intestine. The major types of IBD...
    Inflammatory breast cancer Inflammatory breast cancer type of breast cancer that can occur in women of any age (andextremely rarely, in men).It is called inflammatory ...
    inflatable boat thumb|300px|A Zodiac boat on the beachAn inflatable boat is a lightweight boat constructed with its sides and bow made of flexible tubes con...
    inframammary fold thumb|right|Cross section of the breast of an adult, female human.Inframammary fold (IMF), inframammary crease or inframammary line is the f...
    Injection (medicine) thumb|A [[Somalia|Somali boy receiving a subcutaneous injection of polio vaccine]]An injection (often referred to as a "shot" or a...
    innate immune system The innate immune system comprises the cells and mechanisms that defend the host from infection by other organisms, in a non-specific manner...
    Insect sting allergy Insect sting allergy is the term commonly given to the allergic response of an animal in response to the bite or sting of an insect. Typica...
    insomnia Insomnia is most frequently defined by an individual's report of sleeping difficulties. While the term is sometimes used in sleep literature...
    Institute of Bangladesh Studies Institute of Bangladesh Studies is a research institute in Rajshahi University, Bangladesh. Established in 1973, it is a leading research in...
    Institute of Broadcast Sound The Institute of Broadcast Sound (IBS) is the only organisation in the UK dedicated to the maintenance of the highest standards of professio...
    integral membrane protein thumb|right|E=[[extracellular space; P=plasma membrane; I=intracellular space]]An integral membrane protein (IMP) is a protein molecule (or ...
    Intelsat Intelsat, Ltd. is a communications satellite services provider. Originally formed as International Telecommunications Satellite Organization...
    Intercollegiate Broadcasting System thumb|rightIntercollegiate Broadcasting System (IBS) is an organization of over 1000 non-profit, education-affiliated radio stations (and we...
    interleukin Interleukins are a group of cytokines (secreted proteins/signaling molecules) that were first seen to be expressed by white blood cells (leu...
    Interleukin 10 Interleukin-10 (IL-10 or IL10), also known as human cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor (CSIF), is an anti-inflammatory cytokine. In human...
    Interleukin 12 Interleukin 12 (IL-12) is an interleukin that is naturally produced by dendritic cells, macrophages and human B-lymphoblastoid cells (NC-37...
    Interleukin 13 Interleukin 13 (IL-13) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL13 gene. that is an important mediator of allergic inflammation and d...
    Interleukin 23 Interleukin-23 subunit alpha is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL23A gene.Interleukin-23 (IL-23) is a heterodimeric cytokine con...
    Interleukin 4 Interleukin-4, abbreviated IL-4, is a cytokine that induces differentiation of naive helper T cells (Th0 cells) to Th2 cells. Upon activatio...
    interleukin-4 Interleukin-4, abbreviated IL-4, is a cytokine that induces differentiation of naive helper T cells (Th0 cells) to Th2 cells. Upon activatio...
    Interleukin-4 receptor Interleukin 4 receptor is a type I cytokine receptor. IL4R is its human gene.See also Cluster of differentiation InteractionsInterleukin-4 r...
    International Agency for Research on Cancer The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC, or CIRC in its French acronym) is an intergovernmental agency forming part of the Wor...
    International Biometric Society The International Biometric Society (IBS) is an international professional and academic society promoting the development and application of...
    International Builders' Show The International Builders' Show is organized by the National Association of Home Builders (NAHB) and is the largest light construction buil...
    Internet Broadcasting Internet Broadcasting (formerly Internet Broadcasting Systems), or IB, is a provider of Websites, content and advertising revunue solution t...
    Intrabeam Scattering Intrabeam scattering (IBS) is an effect in accelerator physics where collisions between particles couple the beam emittance in all three dim...
    Intravenous therapy right|thumb|250px|IV bags on a pole connected to IV lines.Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the giving of substances directly into a vein...
    intubation Tracheal intubation, usually simply referred to as intubation, is the placement of a flexible plastic tube into the trachea (windpipe) to ma...
    Inverse psoriasis Inverse psoriasis is a form of psoriasis that selectively and often exclusively involves the folds, recesses, and flexor surfaces such as th...
    ionic interaction thumb|right|500px|[[Sodium and chlorine bonding ionically to form sodium chloride. Sodium loses its outer electron to give it a stable elec...
    irritability Irritability is an excessive response to stimuli. The term is used for both the physiological reaction to stimuli and for the pathological, ...
    Irritable bowel syndrome Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS or spastic colon) is a diagnosis of exclusion. It is a functional bowel disorder characterized by chronic abdo...
    irritants Irritant may refer to: Something that causes irritation. Irritant (album), a psychedelic trance album Irritant (band), a United Kingdom ro...
    irritation Irritation or exacerbation, in biology and physiology, is a state of inflammation or painful reaction to allergy or cell-lining damage. A st...
    ischaemic heart disease Ischaemic or ischemic heart disease (IHD), or myocardial ischaemia, is a disease characterized by ischaemia (reduced blood supply) to the he...
    Janet Lane-Claypon Janet Elizabeth Lane-Claypon (1877???1967) was an English physician and one of the founders of the science of epidemiology, pioneering the u...
    Jean Louis Petit Jean-Louis Petit (1674???1750) was a French surgeon, and the inventor of the tourniquet. He was first enthusiastic about anatomy, received a...
    jet lag Jet lag, medically referred to as "desynchronosis," is a physiological condition which results from alterations to the body's circ...
    joint 400px|thumb|Right|Typical JointA joint is the location at which two or more bones make contact. They are constructed to allow movement and p...
    joint pain Arthralgia (from Greek arthro-, joint + -algos, pain) literally means joint pain; it is a symptom of injury, infection, illnesses (in parti...
    Joint replacement surgery A joint replacement is needed when "an arthritic or damaged joint is removed and replaced with an artificial joint, called a prosthesis...
    joint stiffness Joint stiffness may be either the symptom of pain on moving a joint, the symptom of loss of range of motion or the physical sign of reduced ...
    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis This article does not deal with the more general topic of childhood arthritis. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common for...
    Kara Magsanoc-Alikpala Kara Magsanoc-Alikpala is a Philippine broadcast journalist who produces news documentaries. When diagnosed with breast cancer in 1997, she ...
    keratinocytes Keratinocytes are the predominant cell type in the epidermis, the outermost layer of the human skin, constituting 95% of the cells found the...
    ketamine Ketamine is a drug used in human and veterinary medicine. Its hydrochloride salt is sold as Ketanest, Ketaset, and Ketalar. Pharmacologicall...
    ketotifen Ketotifen fumarate is a second-generation H<sub>1</sub>-antihistamine/mast cell stabilizer available in two forms. In its ophth...
    kidney The kidneys are two organs with several functions. They are seen in many types of animals, including vertebrates and some invertebrates. The...
    kidney disease Nephropathy refers to damage to or disease of the kidney. An older term for this is nephrosis. CausesCauses of nephropathy include administ...
    kidneys The kidneys are two organs with several functions. They are seen in many types of animals, including vertebrates and some invertebrates. The...
    Kimishige Ishizaka Dr is a Japanese scientist who discovered the antibody class IgE in 1966. His work has been regarded as a major breakthrough in the underst...
    knee The knee joint joins the thigh with the leg and consists of two articulations: one between the femur and tibia, and one between the femur an...
    Knee arthritis Arthritis is inflammation in the joints or area of the body where two bones come together. Joints are responsible for the movement of body p...
    Koebner phenomenon 150px|thumb|right| Heinrich K??bner (1838-1904)The Koebner phenomenon, also called the "Koebner response" or the "isomorphic ...
    lability Lability refers to something that is constantly undergoing change or something that is likely to undergo change. ChemistryThe term is use...
    lactating right|thumb|300px|[[Kittens nursing]]Lactation describes the secretion of milk from the mammary glands, the process of providing that milk t...
    lactation right|thumb|300px|[[Kittens nursing]]Lactation describes the secretion of milk from the mammary glands, the process of providing that milk t...
    Lactose intolerance Lactose intolerance is the inability to metabolize lactose, because of a lack of the required enzyme lactase in the digestive system. It is ...
    Lasker Award The Lasker Awards have been awarded annually since 1946 to living persons who have made major contributions to medical science or who have p...
    lavender The lavenders (Lavandula) are a genus of 39 species of flowering plants in the mint family, Lamiaceae. An Old World genus, distributed from ...
    leech Leeches are annelids comprising the subclass Hirudinea. There are freshwater, terrestrial, and marine leeches. Like the Oligochaeta, they sh...
    left ventricular hypertrophy Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is the thickening of the myocardium (muscle) of the left ventricle of the heart.CausesWhile ventricular h...
    lesion A lesion is any abnormal tissue found on or in an organism, usually damaged by disease or trauma. Lesion is derived from the Latin word laes...
    lethargy Fatigue (also called exhaustion, lethargy, languidness, languor, lassitude, and listlessness) is a state of awareness describing a range of ...
    leukocyte thumb|right| A [[scanning electron microscope image of normal circulating human blood. In addition to the irregularly shaped leukocytes, bot...
    leukotriene thumb|right|[[Leukotriene A4|LTA<sub>4</sub> Note the four double bonds, three of them conjugated. This is a common property of ...
    leukotriene antagonist A leukotriene antagonist (sometimes referred to as a leukast) is a drug that inhibits leukotrienes, which are fatty compounds produced by th...
    Leukotriene C4 synthase Leukotriene C4 synthase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the LTC4S gene.The protein encoded by this gene, LTC4S (or glutathione S-t...
    libido Libido in its common usage means sexual desire; however more technical definitions, such as those found in the work of Carl Jung, are more g...
    Life history The term life history has been given many meanings in several scientific fields. It can refer to a variety of methods and techniques that ar...
    ligand thumb|180px|Cobalt complex [[Tetracarbonylhydrocobalt|[HCo(CO)<sub>4</sub>] with five ligands]]In coordination chemistry, a liga...
    light therapy thumb|250px|right|Bright light therapy is a common treatment for seasonal affective disorder and for circadian rhythm disorders.Light therap...
    lipodystrophy Lipodystrophy is a medical condition characterized by abnormal or degenerative conditions of the body's adipose tissue. ("Lipo" is...
    List of allergies This is an incomplete list of allergies:Food Drug Environmental See alsoAllergen Food intolerance Elimination diet ReferencesFurther reading...
    List of cutaneous conditions thumb|alt=Young child with a red rash covering face, chest, shoulders, and arms.|[[Measles]]There are many conditions of or affecting the hu...
    List of notable breast cancer patients according to occupation thumb|right|250px|Actress [[Greta Garbo was a breast cancer patient]]This list of notable breast cancer patients includes people who made si...
    List of notable breast cancer patients according to survival status right|thumb|175px|Former U.S. First Lady [[Nancy Reagan is a long-term breast cancer survivor.]]This list of notable breast cancer patients ...
    lithium salt thumb|[[Lithium citrate]]Lithium pharmacology refers to use of the lithium ion, Li<sup>+</sup>, as a drug. A number of chemical ...
    liver function tests Liver function tests (LFTs or LFs), which include liver enzymes, are groups of clinical biochemistry laboratory blood assays designed to giv...
    Living Beyond Breast Cancer Living Beyond Breast Cancer (LBBC), based outside Philadelphia in the United States, is a national nonprofit organization with the mission o...
    lobular carcinoma Lobular carcinoma is a form of tumor which primarily affects the lobules of a gland.It is sometimes considered equivalent to "terminal ...
    lobules In anatomy, a lobe is a clear anatomical division or extension that can be determined without the use of a microscope (at the gross anatomy...
    locus (genetics) thumb|Short and long armsthumb|Chromosome components:<br><BR>(1) [[Chromatid<BR>(2) Centromere<BR>(3) Short (p) arm&...
    Long acting beta-adrenoceptor agonist Long-acting beta-adrenoceptor agonists are usually prescribed for moderate to severe persistent asthma patients or patients with COPD. They...
    Long-term use of alcohol thumb|[[Disability-adjusted life year for alcohol use disorders per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004.<div class="references-small" s...
    longevity The word "longevity" is sometimes used as a synonym for "life expectancy" in demography or to connote "long life&qu...
    low sodium diet A low sodium diet is a diet that includes no more than 1,500 to 2,400 mgs of sodium per day. (One teaspoon of salt has about 2,300 mg sodiu...
    LRP6 Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LRP6 gene.InteractionsLRP6 has been shown t...
    lupus erythematosus Lupus erythematosus is a category for a collection of diseases with similar underlying problems with immunity. Symptoms of these diseases ca...
    luteinising hormone Luteinizing hormone (LH, also known as lutropin) is a hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland. In females, an acute rise of LH call...
    Lyme disease Lyme disease, or lyme borreliosis, is the main cause of Lyme disease in the United States, whereas Borrelia afzelii and Borrelia garinii cau...
    lymph nodes A lymph node is a small ball-shaped organ of the immune system, distributed widely throughout the body including the armpit and stomach/gut...
    lymphocyte thumb|right|200px|A [[scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of a single human lymphocyte.]]A lymphocyte is a type of white blood cell in ...
    lymphocytes thumb|right|200px|A [[scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of a single human lymphocyte.]]A lymphocyte is a type of white blood cell in ...
    lymphoma Lymphoma is a cancer in the lymphatic of the immune system and presents as a solid tumor of lymphoid cells. It is treatable with chemothera...
    lymphotoxin alpha Lymphotoxin-alpha is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LTA gene.InteractionsLymphotoxin alpha has been shown to interact with LTB.S...
    macrophage thumb|250px|A macrophage of a [[mouse stretching its "arms" (Pseudopodia) to engulf two particles, possibly pathogens]]Macrophages...
    magnesium deficiency (medicine) Magnesium deficiency [mag????nisi????m d??f????????nsi] refers to a lack of dietary magnesium below specified levels, which can result in nu...
    magnetic resonance imaging thumb|[[Sagittal MR image of the knee]]thumb|Para-sagittal MRI of the head, with aliasing artifacts (nose and forehead appear at the back of...
    major depression For other depressive disorders, see Mood disorder. Major depressive disorder (also known as recurrent depressive disorder, clinical depressi...
    major depressive disorder For other depressive disorders, see Mood disorder. Major depressive disorder (also known as recurrent depressive disorder, clinical depressi...
    major histocompatibility complex [[Image:MHC I vs MHC II.png|thumb|Right|300px|Protein images comparing the MHC I (1hsa) and MHC II (1dlh) molecules. (more details...)]]The...
    Male breast cancer Male breast cancer is a relatively rare cancer in men that originates from the breast. As it presents a similar pathology as female breast c...
    malignant Malignancy (from the Latin roots mal- = "bad" and -ignis = "fire") is the tendency of a medical condition, especially tu...
    mammary ductal carcinoma thumb|200px|right|[[Mastectomy specimen containing a very large invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast]]thumb|200px|right|Typical macroscop...
    Mammary tumor A mammary tumor is a tumor originating in the mammary gland. It is a common finding in older female dogs and cats that are not spayed, but ...
    mammogram right|thumb|240px|Mammography.Mammography is the process of using low-dose amplitude-X-rays (usually around 0.7 mSv) to examine the human br...
    Mammography right|thumb|240px|Mammography.Mammography is the process of using low-dose amplitude-X-rays (usually around 0.7 mSv) to examine the human br...
    Mammography Quality Standards Act The Mammography Quality Standards Act (MQSA) was enacted by the United States Congress to regulate the quality of care in mammography. The ...
    Man's Search for Meaning Viktor Frankl's 1946 book Man's Search for Meaning chronicles his experiences as a concentration camp inmate and describes his psychotherape...
    manufacturing right|350pxthumb|Assembly of Section 41 of a Boeing [[787 Dreamliner.]]Manufacturing is the use of machines, tools and labor to produce good...
    Mary Washington Mary Washington may refer to: Mary L. Washington, a Maryland legislator Mary Ball Washington (1708 ??? 1789), mother of U.S. President Geor...
    mast cell thumb|300px|Mast cellsA mast cell (or mastocyte) is a resident cell of several types of tissues and contains many granules rich in histamine...
    mast cell stabilizer thumb|[[Cromolyn]]thumb|[[Nedocromil]]Mast cell stabilizers are cromone medications used to prevent or control certain allergic disorders. T...
    mastitis Mastitis is the inflammation of breast tissue. S. aureus is the most common etiological organism responsible, but S. epidermidis and strepto...
    mastodynia <sup></sup>Mastodynia, mastalgia or mammalgia are names for a medical symptom that means breast pain (from the Greek masto-, br...
    MCF-7 MCF-7 is a breast cancer cell line isolated in 1970 from a 69-year-old Caucasian woman. MCF-7 is the acronym of Michigan Cancer Foundation -...
    MDMA MDMA (3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine, commonly known as ecstasy, often abbreviated "E" or "X") is an entactogenic dru...
    Meaning (existential) Short Answer: The meaning of life is to experience consciousness.In existentialism, meaning is understood as the worth of life. Meaning in e...
    meaning of life thumb|right|355px|[[Where Do We Come From? What Are We? Where Are We Going?<br />One of Post-Impressionist Paul Gauguin's most famous ...
    mechanical ventilation thumb|250px|Nasotracheal intubationIn medicine, mechanical ventilation is a method to mechanically assist or replace spontaneous breathing.T...
    mechanism of action In pharmacology, the term mechanism of action (MOA) refers to the specific biochemical interaction through which a drug substance produces i...
    medical diagnosis Medical diagnosis refers both to the process of attempting to determine the identity of a possible disease or disorder and to the opinion re...
    Medical history The medical history or anamnesis (abbr. Hx) of a patient is information gained by a physician by asking specific questions, either of the p...
    medication A pharmaceutical drug, also referred to as medicine, medication or medicament, can be loosely defined as any chemical substance intended for...
    medications A pharmaceutical drug, also referred to as medicine, medication or medicament, can be loosely defined as any chemical substance intended for...
    meditation thumb|300px|A statue of the [[Buddha meditating, Borim Temple, Korea]]Meditation refers to any of a family of practices in which the practit...
    Medline MEDLINE (Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online) is a bibliographic database of life sciences and biomedical information. I...
    MedlinePlus thumb|rightMedlinePlus is a free Web site that provides consumer health information for patients, families, and Health care providers. The s...
    melanoma Melanoma () is a malignant tumor of melanocytes. Such cells are found predominantly in skin, but are also found in the bowel and the eye (...
    melatonin Melatonin (), also known chemically as N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, is a naturally occurring compound found in animals, plants, and microbe...
    Membership of the Royal College of Physicians Membership of the Royal Colleges of Physicians (MRCP(UK)) is a postgraduate medical diploma. The examinations are run by the Federation of t...
    Memory loss Memory loss can be partial or total and it is normal when it comes with aging. Sudden memory loss is usually a result of brain trauma and i...
    Menopausal Research and Info Service The Menopausal Research & Info Service is a British medical research charity dedicated to the research into the menopause.See also menop...
    menses thumb|350px|right|Menstrual cycleThe menstrual cycle is a series of physiological changes that can occur in fertile females. Overt menstruat...
    mercaptopurine Mercaptopurine (also called 6-mercaptopurine, 6-MP or its brand name Purinethol) is an immunosuppressive drug.It is a thiopurine.UsesIt is u...
    metabolic disorder Inborn errors of metabolism comprise a large class of genetic diseases involving disorders of metabolism. The majority are due to defects of...
    metabolic syndrome Metabolic syndrome is a combination of medical disorders that increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and diabetes. It affect...
    metastasis Metastasis (Greek: displacement, ????????, next, + ????????????, placement; plural: metastases), or metastatic disease (sometimes abbreviate...
    metastatic Metastasis (Greek: displacement, ????????, next, + ????????????, placement; plural: metastases), or metastatic disease (sometimes abbreviate...
    Metastatic breast cancer Metastatic breast cancer is a complex multi-step process involving the expansion of cancerous cells from the breast to other areas of the bo...
    metered-dose inhaler thumb|180px|right|ProAir-HFA<br />Albuterol Sulfate(US)A metered-dose inhaler (MDI) is a device that delivers a specific amount of med...
    methotrexate Methotrexate (rINN) (), abbreviated MTX and formerly known as amethopterin, is an antimetabolite and antifolate drug used in treatment of ca...
    Methylxanthines Xanthine ( or ), (3,7-dihydro-purine-2,6-dione), is a purine base found in most human body tissues and fluids and in other organisms. A numb...
    Mexican American Mexican Americans make up more than 10% of the United States' population: over 30,000,000 Americans listed their ancestry as Mexican as of 2...
    microorganism thumb|250px|right|A cluster of [[Escherichia coli Bacteria magnified 10,000 times.]]A microorganism (from the , mikr??s, "small" a...
    midazolam Midazolam (, and marketed in English-speaking countries under brand names Dormicum, Hypnovel, and Versed) is a short-acting drug in the benz...
    middle age Middle age is the period of age beyond young adulthood but before the onset of old age. Various attempts have been made to define this age, ...
    middle-of-the-night insomnia Middle-of-the-night insomnia (MOTN) is insomnia characterized by difficulty returning to sleep after awakening either in the middle of the n...
    midlife Middle age is the period of age beyond young adulthood but before the onset of old age. Various attempts have been made to define this age, ...
    Migraine Migraine is a neurological syndrome characterized by altered bodily perceptions, severe headaches, and nausea. Physiologically, the migrain...
    milk thumb|Two samples of human [[breast milk]]thumb|A glass of [[Pasteurization|pasteurized cow milk, consumption of which is prevalent in Weste...
    mindbody relaxation The goal of mindbody relaxation is to relax both the body and mind. The basic idea is that it's easier to relax your mind if you first relax...
    mineral oil thumb|right|180px|Bottle of mineral oil as sold in the U.S.A mineral oil or liquid petroleum is a liquid by-product of the distillation of p...
    mirtazapine Mirtazapine (Remeron, Avanza, Zispin) is a tetracyclic antidepressant (TeCA) used primarily in the treatment of depression. It is also somet...
    Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase is a kinase enzyme which phosphorylates mitogen-activated protein kinase. It is also known as MAP2K. It is classified as .There are seven ge...
    moisturizer thumb|300px|MoisturizerMoisturizers or moisturisers (see spelling differences) are complex mixtures of chemical agents specially designed t...
    mold Molds (or moulds; see spelling differences) are fungi that grow in the form of multicellular filaments called hyphae. In contrast, microscop...
    monoclonal antibodies 200px|thumb|right|A general representation of the methods used to produce monoclonal antibodies.Monoclonal antibodies (mAb or moAb) are mono...
    monoclonal antibody 200px|thumb|right|A general representation of the methods used to produce monoclonal antibodies.Monoclonal antibodies (mAb or moAb) are mono...
    monomer A monomer (from Greek mono "one" and meros "part") is an atom or a small molecule that may bind chemically to other mono...
    Mood (psychology) A mood is a relatively long lasting emotional state. Moods differ from simple emotions in that they are less specific, less intense, and les...
    mood disorder Mood disorder is the term designating a group of diagnoses in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV TR) classifi...
    mood swing A mood swing is an extreme or rapid change in mood.Associated disordersMood swings are commonly associated with mood disorders including bip...
    Morality Morality (from the Latin ' "manner, character, proper behavior") is a sense of behavioral conduct that differentiates intentions, ...
    morbidity A disease is an abnormal condition affecting the body of an organism. It is often construed to be a medical condition associated with speci...
    morphine Morphine (INN) () (MS Contin, MSIR, Avinza, Kadian, Oramorph, Roxanol, Kapanol) is a potent opiate analgesic medication and is considered t...
    mortality rate thumb|250px|Crude death rate by countryMortality rate is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in some ...
    mosquito bite Mosquito (from the Spanish or Portuguese meaning little fly) is a common insect in the family Culicidae (from the Latin ' meaning midge or g...
    mouse A mouse (plural: mice) is a small mammal belonging to the order of rodents. The best known mouse species is the common house mouse (Mus musc...
    muscle right|300px|thumbnail|A top-down view of skeletal muscleMuscle (from Latin musculus, diminutive of mus "mouse") is the contractile...
    muscle pain Myalgia means "muscle pain" and is a symptom of many diseases and disorders. The most common causes are the overuse or over-stretc...
    myalgia Myalgia means "muscle pain" and is a symptom of many diseases and disorders. The most common causes are the overuse or over-stretc...
    mydriasis Mydriasis is an excessive dilation of the pupil due to disease, trauma or the use of drugs. Normally, the pupil dilates in the dark and cons...
    myocardial infarction Myocardial infarction (MI) or acute myocardial infarction (AMI), commonly known as a heart attack, is the interruption of blood supply to a ...
    Nail (anatomy) A nail is a horn-like envelope covering the dorsal aspect of the terminal phalanges of fingers and toes in humans, most primates, and a few ...
    Naltrexone Naltrexone is an opioid receptor antagonist used primarily in the management of alcohol dependence and opioid dependence. It is marketed in...
    Napkin psoriasis Napkin psoriasis, or psoriasis in the diaper area, is characteristically seen in infants between two and eight months of age. Gallery <ga...
    National Breast Cancer Awareness Month Breast Cancer Awareness Month (BCAM) (also referred to in America as National Breast Cancer Awareness Month (NBCAM)) is an annual internatio...
    National Breast Cancer Coalition The National Breast Cancer Coalition (NBCC) is a grassroots membership organization, comprising hundreds of member organizations and tens of...
    National Cancer Institute right|200pxThe National Cancer Institute (NCI) is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which is one of 11 agencies that are part...
    National Comprehensive Cancer Network National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) is an alliance of twenty-one cancer centers in the United States, most of which are designated ...
    National Health Service thumb|170px|alt=The NHS Logo for England|National Health Service (England) logothumb|170px|alt=NHS Scotland logo|NHS Scotland logothumb|170p...
    National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute right|240pxThe National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (or NHLBI) is a division of the National Institutes of Health, located in Bethesda,...
    National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases 140px|rightThe National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, or NIAMS, is an institute of the National Institutes o...
    National Institutes of Health thumb|right|National Institutes of Healththumb|right|Building 50 at NIHthumb|right|200px|Clinical Center - [[Bethesda, Maryland|Building 10]...
    National Psoriasis Foundation The National Psoriasis Foundation www.psoriasis.org is the United States??? leading patient-driven, nonprofit advocacy organization that ser...
    National Sleep Foundation The National Sleep Foundation (NSF) is an independent nonprofit organization in the USA whose objectives are to improve public health and sa...
    natriuretic The discharge of sodium through urine is known as "natriuresis". Natriuretic can refer to: Atrial natriuretic peptide Brain natri...
    Natural environment thumb|right|325px|[[Land management policies have been developed to preserve the natural characteristics of Hopetoun Falls, Australia while ...
    naturopathic Naturopathy (also known as naturopathic medicine or natural medicine) is an alternative medical system that focuses on natural remedies and...
    nebulizer In medicine, a nebulizer (spelt nebuliser in British English) is a device used to administer medication in the form of a mist inhaled into t...
    neonates An infant or baby is the very young offspring of humans. A newborn is an infant who is within hours, days, or up to a few weeks from birth....
    nerve thumb|250px|Nerves (yellow)A peripheral nerve, or simply nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of peripheral axons (the long, slender proj...
    neurogenic inflammation Neurogenic inflammation is inflammation arising from the local release from afferent neurons of inflammatory mediators such as substance P a...
    Neurology Neurology (from Greek , neuron, "nerve"; and , -logia) is a medical specialty dealing with disorders of the nervous system. Specif...
    neuroticism Neuroticism is a fundamental personality trait in the study of psychology. It is an enduring tendency to experience negative emotional stat...
    neutrophil This article is about neutrophils, cells of the immune system. For organisms that grow in neutral pH environments see: Neutrophile.thumb|rig...
    nicotine Nicotine is an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants (Solanaceae) that constitutes approximately 0.6???3.0% of dry weight of tob...
    Niels Ryberg Finsen Niels Ryberg Finsen (December 15, 1860 &ndash; September 24, 1904) was a Danish/Faroese/Icelandic physician and scientist. In 1903 he be...
    night terrors "Pavor Nocturnus" redirects here, for the Sanctuary episode, see Pavor Nocturnus (Sanctuary) A night terror, also known as a sleep...
    nightmares right|thumb|[[The Nightmare, (1781) (Detroit Institute of Art). The canvas portraying the Incubus sitting on the woman experiencing the nigh...
    NIH thumb|right|National Institutes of Healththumb|right|Building 50 at NIHthumb|right|200px|Clinical Center - [[Bethesda, Maryland|Building 10]...
    nitrazepam thumb|right|150px|Alodorm bottle containing 25 tablets of 5mg NitrazepamNitrazepam is a type of benzodiazepine drug and is marketed in Engli...
    NOD1 Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NOD1 gene. NOD1 protein contain...
    nodule (medicine) For use of the term nodule in dermatology, see Nodule (dermatology)In medicine, a nodule refers to a relatively hard, roughly spherical abno...
    Noise health effects thumb|right|300px|Roadway noise is a major source of exposureNoise health effects are the health consequences of elevated sound levels. Ele...
    Non-rapid eye movement sleep The sleep stages 1 through 3, previously known as stages 1 through 4, are collectively referred to as non-rapid eye movement, NREM, sleep. R...
    non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs thumb|275px|Coated 200 mg [[ibuprofen tablets, a common NSAID]]Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, usually abbreviated to NSAIDs or NAIDs,...
    nonbenzodiazepine The nonbenzodiazepines, also called benzodiazepine-like drugs, are a class of psychoactive drugs whose pharmacological actions are similar t...
    Normality (behavior) In behavior, normal refers to a lack of significant deviation from the average. The phrase "not normal" is often applied in a nega...
    NOS1 Nitric oxide synthase 1 (neuronal), also known as NOS1, is an enzyme which in humans is encoded by the NOS1 gene. Function Nitric oxide (NO)...
    NREM The sleep stages 1 through 3, previously known as stages 1 through 4, are collectively referred to as non-rapid eye movement, NREM, sleep. R...
    NSAID thumb|275px|Coated 200 mg [[ibuprofen tablets, a common NSAID]]Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, usually abbreviated to NSAIDs or NAIDs,...
    nucleus accumbens The nucleus accumbens (NAcc), also known as the accumbens nucleus or as the nucleus accumbens septi (Latin for nucleus leaning against the s...
    obesity Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have an adverse effect on health, leading ...
    obsessive compulsive disorder Obsessive???compulsive disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder characterized by intrusive thoughts that produce uneasiness, apprehension, fear...
    obstructive lung disease Obstructive lung disease is a category of respiratory disease characterized by airway obstruction.MeSH includes the following in this catego...
    occupational therapy Occupation can be defined as "active process of living: from the beginning to the end of life, ... occupations are all the active proce...
    odor thumb| A Nasal Ranger in use, which is an olfactometer machine that measures odorsAn odor or odour is caused by one or more volatilized che...
    off label Off-label use is the practice of prescribing pharmaceuticals for an unapproved indication. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administ...
    ointment In medicine, a topical medication is applied to body surfaces such as the skin or mucous membranes such as the vagina, anus, throat, eyes an...
    oligonucleotide For the software see: OLIGO Primer Analysis Software. An oligonucleotide (from Greek prefix oligo-, "having few, having little") i...
    onycholysis Onycholysis refers to the detachment of the nail from the nail bed, starting at its distal and/or lateral attachment. It is said to occur pa...
    oocytes An oocyte, ovocyte, or rarely ocyte, is a female gametocyte or germ cell involved in reproduction. In other words, it is an immature ovum, o...
    Operator (profession) thumb|200px|Statue of a [[Boom operator (media)|boom operator on the Avenue of Stars in Hong Kong.]]An operator is a professional designatio...
    opioid An opioid is a chemical that works by binding to opioid receptors, which are found principally in the central nervous system and the gastroi...
    opossum Opossums (Didelphimorphia, ) are the largest order of marsupials in the Western Hemisphere. They are also commonly called possums, though th...
    Oregon-grape Oregon-grape (Mahonia aquifolium, Berberidaceae) is an evergreen shrub related to the barberry. Some authors place Mahonia in the barberry g...
    orgasm thumb|225px|Ecstasy (1894), by [[W??adys??aw Podkowi??ski, depicts the orgasm.]]Orgasm (from Greek orgasmos, from organ to mature, swell, al...
    osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis (OA) also known as degenerative arthritis or degenerative joint disease, is a group of mechanical abnormalities involving deg...
    Osteoimmunology Osteoimmunology (????????????, osteon from Greek, ???bone???; immunitas from Latin, ???immunity???; and ??????????, logos, from Greek ???kno...
    osteopathy Osteopathy or osteopathic medicine is an approach to healthcare that emphasizes the role of the musculoskeletal system in health and disease...
    Osteopenia Osteopenia is a condition where bone mineral density is lower than normal. It is considered by many doctors to be a precursor to osteoporosi...
    Otto Rank Otto Rank (April 22, 1884 ??? October 31, 1939) was an Austrian psychoanalyst, writer, teacher and therapist. Born in Vienna as Otto Rosenfe...
    ova Ova may refer to:Abbreviation of ovalbumin, a protein found in egg whites Feminin surname suffix in Slavic-language countries, e.g., names...
    ovarian follicles Ovarian follicles are the basic units of female reproductive biology, each of which is composed of roughly spherical aggregations of cells f...
    ovaries "Ovaria" redirects here. This is also a proposed section and a synonym of Solanum. The ovary is an ovum-producing reproductive org...
    over-illumination thumb|240px|right|This [[cosmetics store has lighting levels over twice recommended levels]] Over-illumination is the presence of lighting ...
    oxycodone Oxycodone is an opioid analgesic medication synthesized from opium-derived thebaine. It was developed in 1916 in Germany, as one of several ...
    Oxygen Oxygen ( ) is the element with atomic number 8 and represented by the symbol O. Its name derives from the Greek roots ????????? (oxys) (acid...
    oxygen saturation Oxygen saturation or dissolved oxygen (DO) is a relative measure of the amount of oxygen that is Dissolution (chemistry)|dissolved or carri...
    ozone Ozone (O<sub>3</sub>), or trioxygen, is a triatomic molecule, consisting of three oxygen atoms. It is an allotrope of oxygen tha...
    p53 p53 (also known as protein 53 or tumor protein 53), is a tumor suppressor protein that in humans is encoded by the TP53 gene.The name p53 is...
    Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus is a genus of fish in the family Salmonidae; it contains the Pacific salmons and Pacific trouts. The name of the genus is deriv...
    Paget's disease of the breast Paget's disease of the breast (also known as Paget's disease of the nipple ) is a malignant condition that outwardly may have the appearance...
    pain Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such dama...
    pain disorder Pain disorder is when a patient experiences chronic pain in one or more areas, and is thought to be caused by psychological stress. The pain...
    palmar erythema Palmar erythema is reddening of the palms at the thenar and hypothenar eminences. CausesIt is associated with various physiological as well...
    palpitation A palpitation is an abnormality of heartbeat that causes a conscious awareness of its beating, whether it is too slow, too fast, irregular, ...
    panic attack Panic attacks are episodes of intense fear or apprehension that are of sudden onset and of relatively brief duration. Panic attacks usually...
    pannus Pannus is a medical term for a hanging flap of tissue. When involving the abdomen, it is called a panniculus and consists of skin, fat, and ...
    papule A papule is a circumscribed, solid elevation of skin with no visible fluid, varying in size from a pinhead to 1 cm.Papules may have differen...
    paradox A paradox is a true statement or group of statements that leads to a contradiction or a situation which defies intuition. The term is also u...
    paradoxical intention In psychotherapy, paradoxical intention is the deliberate practice of a neurotic habit or thought, undertaken in order to identify and remov...
    Parasomnia For the 2008 horror film, see Parasomnia (film) Parasomnias are a category of sleep disorders that involve abnormal and unnatural movements...
    passion-flower The passion flowers or passion vines (Passiflora) are a genus of about 500 species of flowering plants, the namesakes of the family Passiflo...
    Passive smoking thumb|right|200px|Tobacco smoke in an [[Public house|Irish pub before a smoking ban came into effect on March 29, 2004]]Passive smoking is t...
    pathogenesis The term pathogenesis means step by step development of a disease and the chain of events leading to that disease due to a series of changes...
    patriarchal Patriarchy is an androcentric social system in which the role of the male as the primary authority figure is central to social organization,...
    Paul Tillich Paul Johannes Tillich (August 20, 1886 &ndash; October 22, 1965) was a German-American theologian and Christian existentialist philosoph...
    peak expiratory flow rate thumb|200px|right|A peak flow meter issued in the UK.The peak expiratory flow (PEF), also called peak expiratory flow rate PEFR is a person'...
    peak flow meter thumb|200px|right|A peak flow meter issued in the UK.The peak expiratory flow (PEF), also called peak expiratory flow rate PEFR is a person'...
    pediatrician Pediatrics is the branch of medicine that deals with the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents. The age limit of such patients ...
    pelvis In human anatomy, the pelvis (plural pelves or pelvises) is the part of the trunk inferioposterior (below-behind) to the abdomen in the tran...
    peptide bond This article is about the peptide link found within biological molecules, such as proteins. A similar article for synthetic molecules is bei...
    perindopril Perindopril, or perindopril arginine, (trade names include Coversyl and Aceon) is a long-acting ACE inhibitor. It is also available in a gen...
    Periodic limb movement disorder Periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD), previously known as nocturnal myoclonus, is a sleep disorder where the patient moves limbs involunta...
    perioral The mouth is the first portion of the alimentary canal that receives food and saliva. The oral mucosa is the mucous membrane epithelium lin...
    Peter Paul Rubens Sir Peter Paul Rubens (; 28 June 1577 ??? 30 May 1640) was a prolific seventeenth-century Flemish Baroque painter, and a proponent of an ext...
    petroleum jelly thumb|right|200px|White petrolatum.Petroleum jelly, petrolatum, white petrolatum or soft paraffin, CAS number 8009-03-8, is a semi-solid mix...
    pharmacology thumb|right|300px|A variety of topics involved with pharmacology, including neuropharmacology, renal pharmacology, human metabolism, intrace...
    pheochromocytoma A pheochromocytoma or phaeochromocytoma (PCC) is a neuroendocrine tumor of the medulla of the adrenal glands (originating in the chromaffin ...
    Philippines The Philippines ( ), officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (), is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. T...
    philopatry Broadly, philopatry is the behaviour of remaining in, or returning to, an individual's birthplace. More specifically, in ecology philopatry ...
    photosensitivity Photosensitivity is the amount to which an object reacts upon receiving photons, especially visible light.Interpretation in medicine Human m...
    phyllodes tumor Phyllodes tumors (from Greek: phullon leaf), also cystosarcoma phyllodes, cystosarcoma phylloides and phylloides tumor, are typically large,...
    physical dependence Physical dependence refers to a state resulting from chronic use of a drug that has produced tolerance and where negative physical symptoms...
    physical exam thumb|240px|Examination room in Washington, DC, period of WWI.Physical examination or clinical examination is the process by which a doctor ...
    physical examination thumb|240px|Examination room in Washington, DC, period of WWI.Physical examination or clinical examination is the process by which a doctor ...
    Physical exercise thumb|right|200px|Competitor emerging from the swim portion of a [[triathlon]]Physical exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or main...
    physical therapy Physical therapy or physiotherapy, often abbreviated PT, Physical therapists provide services to individuals and populations to develop, mai...
    physician A physician???also known as MD,MBBS, or BMed and DO, medical doctor, or simply doctor???practices the ancient profession of medicine, which...
    phytoestrogens Phytoestrogens are xenoestrogens which means foreign substances functioning as the primary female sex hormone (see estrogen) not generated w...
    Phytoserm PhytoSERM (phyto = plant, SERM = selective estrogen receptor modulator) is the medical term used to describe botanically derived substances ...
    PI3K Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI 3-kinases or PI3Ks) are a family of enzymes involved in cellular functions such as cell growth, prolifera...
    pink ribbon 100px|rightThe pink ribbon is an international symbol of breast cancer awareness.History Ribbons have been used to express solidarity on the...
    pituitary gland In vertebrate anatomy the pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing 0.5 g (0.02 oz.). It i...
    placental mammal Eutheria (Greek: "true/good beasts") is a group of mammals consisting of placental mammals plus all extinct mammals that are more ...
    Plainfield Juvenile Correctional Facility The Indiana Boys School (IBS) was opened in 1867 as a correctional institution for adolescent boys. It was located on U.S. Route 40 just out...
    platyfish Xiphophorus is a genus of euryhaline and freshwater fishes in the family Poeciliidae of order Cyprinodontiformes. The many Xiphophorus spec...
    pleural effusion Pleural effusion is excess fluid that accumulates in the pleura, the fluid-filled space that surrounds the lungs. Excessive amounts of such ...
    PLXNA2 Plexin-A2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PLXNA2 gene.This gene encodes a member of the plexin-A family of semaphorin co-recep...
    poison ivy Toxicodendron radicans, better known as poison ivy, (older synonyms are Rhus toxicodendron and Rhus radicans) is a poisonous North American ...
    poison sumac Poison sumac (Toxicodendron vernix or Rhus vernix) is a woody shrub or small tree growing to 7 m (20 ft) tall. All parts of the plant contai...
    poisonous right|thumb|The [[EU's standard toxic symbol, as defined by Directive 67/548/EEC. The skull and crossbones has long been a standard symbol f...
    pollen thumb|Tip of a tulip stamen with many grains of pollenthumb|250px|Closeup image of a cactus flower and its stamensthumb|right|250px|[[Scanni...
    polygenic Inheritance of quantitative traits or polygenic inheritance refers to the inheritance of a phenotypic characteristic that varies in degree a...
    polymer chain thumb|175px|Appearance of real linear polymer chains as recorded using an [[atomic force microscope on surface under liquid medium. Chain co...
    polymorphism (biology) thumb|right|Light-morph [[Jaguar (typical)]]thumb|right|Dark-morph or melanistic Jaguar (about 6% of the South American population)Polymorph...
    polypeptide chain Peptides (from the Greek ????????????, "digested" from ?????????????? "to digest") are short polymers of amino acids li...
    polysomnograph thumb|250px|Polysomnographic record of [[Rapid eye movement sleep|REM sleep. EEG highlighted by red box. Eye movements highlighted by a red ...
    polysomnography thumb|250px|Polysomnographic record of [[Rapid eye movement sleep|REM sleep. EEG highlighted by red box. Eye movements highlighted by a red ...
    polyuria thumb|220px|Regulation of urine production by ADH and aldosteroneIn medicine, polyuria is a condition usually defined as excessive or abnorm...
    Positive psychology Positive psychology is a recent branch of psychology whose purpose was summed up in 2000 by Martin Seligman and Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi: &qu...
    positron emission tomography thumb|250px|Image of a typical positron emission tomography (PET) facilitythumb|250px|PET/CT-System with 16-slice CT; the ceiling mounted de...
    post traumatic stress disorder Posttraumatic stress disorder (also known as post-traumatic stress disorder or PTSD) is a severe anxiety disorder that can develop after exp...
    potassium Potassium ( ) is the chemical element with the symbol K (), atomic number 19, and atomic mass 39.0983. Elemental potassium is a soft silvery...
    prazosin Prazosin, trade names Minipress,Vasoflex,Pressin and Hypovase, is a sympatholytic drug used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension). It...
    prednisolone Prednisolone is the active metabolite of prednisone.UsesPrednisolone is a corticosteroid drug with predominantly glucocorticoid and low mine...
    Premarin Premarin is the commercial name for compound drug consisting primarily of conjugated estrogens. Isolated from mare's urine (PREgnant MARes' ...
    Premature menopause Premature Ovarian Failure (POF), also known as premature ovarian insufficiency, primary ovarian insufficiency (this is the most accurate ter...
    premature ovarian failure Premature Ovarian Failure (POF), also known as premature ovarian insufficiency, primary ovarian insufficiency (this is the most accurate ter...
    primary aldosteronism Primary aldosteronism, also known as primary hyperaldosteronism, is characterized by the overproduction of the mineralocorticoid hormone ald...
    prion A proteinaceous infectious particle, or prion, () is an infectious agent composed primarily of protein, unlike viruses, which consist of two...
    progesterone receptor The progesterone receptor (PR) also known as NR3C3 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 3), is an intracellular steroid receptor t...
    progestin thumb|right|250px|Co-inventor [[Luis E. Miramontes's signed laboratory notebook. October 15, 1951]]A progestin is a synthetic progestogen th...
    progestins thumb|right|250px|Co-inventor [[Luis E. Miramontes's signed laboratory notebook. October 15, 1951]]A progestin is a synthetic progestogen th...
    prognosis Prognosis (Greek ???????????????? - literally fore-knowing, foreseeing) is a medical term to describe the likely outcome of an illness. When...
    propranolol thumb|right|An 80 mg capsule of Propranolol.Propranolol (INN) is a non-selective beta blocker mainly used in the treatment of hypertension. ...
    prostaglandin thumb|right|[[Alprostadil|E<sub>1</sub> - Alprostadil]]thumb|[[Prostacyclin|I<sub>2</sub> - Prostacyclin]]A prostagl...
    prostate cancer Prostate cancer is a form of cancer that develops in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system. Most prostate cancers are slow g...
    Protein conformation Proteins are an important class of biological macromolecules present in all organisms. All proteins are polymers of amino acids. Classified ...
    Protein quaternary structure In biochemistry, quaternary structure is the arrangement of multiple folded protein or coiling protein molecules in a multi-subunit comple...
    Protein secondary structure Image:Myoglobin.png|thumb|200px|A representation of the 3D structure of the myoglobin protein. alpha helix|Alpha helices are shown in colour...
    Protein tertiary structure In biochemistry and molecular biology, the tertiary structure of a protein or any other macromolecule is its three-dimensional structure, as...
    proteinogenic amino acid Proteinogenic amino acids are those amino acids that can be found in proteins and require cellular machinery coded for in the genetic code ...
    proteinuria Proteinuria ( or , from protein and urine) means the presence of anexcess of serum proteins in the urine. The protein in the urine often cau...
    Provera Medroxyprogesterone (MP) is a pregnane that acts as a progestin. An acylated derivative, medroxyprogesterone 17-acetate (MPA) is clinically...
    Proximate and ultimate causation In philosophy a proximate cause is an event which is closest to, or immediately responsible for causing, some observed result. This exists ...
    Prozac thumb|right|Fluoxetine 20 mg capsulesFluoxetine (also known by the tradenames Prozac, Sarafem) is an antidepressant of the selective seroton...
    Psoralen Psoralen (also called psoralene) is the parent compound in a family of natural products known as furocoumarins. It is structurally related t...
    psoriasis Psoriasis () is a chronic, autoimmune disease that appears on the skin. It occurs when the immune system sends out faulty signals that spee...
    Psoriasis Area Severity Index Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) is the most widely used tool for the measurement of severity of psoriasis. PASI combines the assessment...
    Psoriasis vulgaris Psoriasis () is a chronic, autoimmune disease that appears on the skin. It occurs when the immune system sends out faulty signals that spee...
    psoriatic arthritis thumb|[[Magnetic resonance imaging|Magnetic resonance images of the fingers in psoriatic arthritis. Shown are T1-weighted (a) pre-contrast a...
    Psoriatic erythroderma Psoriatic erythroderma (also known as "Erythrodermic psoriasis") represents a generalized form of psoriasis that affects all body ...
    Psoriatic nails Psoriatic nails is a nail disease. It is common in those suffering from psoriasis, with reported incidences varying from 10% to 78%. Elder...
    psychoactive drug thumb|right|250px|An assortment of psychoactive drugsA psychoactive drug, psychopharmaceutical or psychotropic is a chemical substance that ...
    psychosomatic illness Psychosomatic medicine is an interdisciplinary medical field studying the relationships of social, psychological, and behavioral factors on ...
    PTEN PTEN may mean: Patterson-UTI Energy, Inc., which trades on the NASDAQ stock market under the symbol 'PTEN' Prime Time Entertainment Network...
    puberty Puberty is the process of physical changes by which a child's body becomes an adult body capable of reproduction. Puberty is initiated by ho...
    public health thumb|Newspaper headlines from around the world about [[polio vaccine tests (13 April 1955).]]Public health is "the science and art of ...
    Pulmonary aspiration In medicine, aspiration is the entry of secretions or foreign material into the trachea and lungs.The patient may either inhale the material...
    pulsus paradoxus In medicine, a pulsus paradoxus (PP), also paradoxic pulse or paradoxical pulse, is an exaggeration of the normal variation during the insp...
    pustule There are many conditions of or affecting the human integumentary system???the organ system that comprises the entire surface of the body an...
    Pustulosis palmaris et plantaris Pustulosis palmaris et plantaris (also known as "Pustulosis of palms and soles,"See also Pustulosis Psoriasis List of cutaneous ...
    PUVA PUVA is a psoralen + UVA treatment for eczema, psoriasis, graft-versus-host disease and vitiligo, and mycosis fungoides. The psoralen is ap...
    quazepam Quazepam (marketed under brand names Doral, Dormalin) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. Quazepam is indicated for the treatmen...
    Rachel Carson Rachel Louise Carson (May 27, 1907 ??? April 14, 1964) was an American marine biologist and nature writer whose writings are credited with a...
    radiation 300px|thumb|right|This figure illustrates the relative abilities of three different types of [[ionizing radiation to penetrate solid matter....
    radical mastectomy Radical mastectomy is a surgical procedure in which the breast, underlying chest muscle (including pectoralis major and pectoralis minor), a...
    radioactive isotope A radionuclide is an atom with an unstable nucleus, which is a nucleus characterized by excess energy which is available to be imparted eith...
    radioallergosorbent test A RAST test (short for radioallergosorbent test) is a blood test used to determine to what substances a person is allergic. This is differen...
    radiometry In optics, radiometry is the field that studies the measurement of electromagnetic radiation, including visible light. Note that light is al...
    radiotherapy thumb|Radiation therapy of the [[pelvis. Lasers and a mould under the legs are used to determine exact position.]]thumb|Varian Clinac 2100C ...
    ramelteon Ramelteon, marketed as Rozerem by Takeda Pharmaceuticals North America, is the first in a new class of sleep agents that selectively binds t...
    randomized controlled trial [[Image:Flowchart of Phases of Parallel Randomized Trial - Modified from CONSORT 2010.jpg|thumb|300px|right|Flowchart of four phases (enroll...
    Raphael Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino (April 6 or March 28, 1483 ??? April 6, 1520), better known simply as Raphael, was an Italy|Italian Painting|pain...
    rapid eye movement behavior disorder Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a sleep disorder (more specifically a parasomnia) that involves abnormal behavior during...
    Rapid eye movement sleep Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep is a normal stage of sleep characterized by the rapid movement of the eyes. REM sleep is classified into two ...
    Raptiva Efalizumab (trade name Raptiva, Genentech, Merck Serono) is a medication designed to treat psoriasis. As implied by the suffix -zumab, it is...
    Ras (protein) The Ras subfamily (an abbreviation of RAt Sarcoma) is a protein subfamily of small GTPases that are involved in cellular signal transduction...
    Rauwolfia serpentina Rauvolfia serpentina, or 'snakeroot' is a species of flowering plant in the family Apocynaceae. Medicinal usesthumb|left|upright| FruitsIt ...
    Reactive arthritis Reiter's Syndrome or Reiter's arthritis, is a form of reactive arthritis, classified as an autoimmune condition that develops in response to...
    rebound anxiety Rebound effect is the tendency of a medication, when discontinued, to cause a return of the symptoms being treated to be more severe than be...
    rebound effect Rebound effect is the tendency of a medication, when discontinued, to cause a return of the symptoms being treated to be more severe than be...
    rebound insomnia Rebound effect is the tendency of a medication, when discontinued, to cause a return of the symptoms being treated to be more severe than be...
    rebound withdrawal effects Rebound effect is the tendency of a medication, when discontinued, to cause a return of the symptoms being treated to be more severe than be...
    Receptor antagonist thumb|Antagonists will block the binding of an [[agonist at a receptor molecule, inhibiting the signal produced by a receptor-agonist coupli...
    red clover Trifolium pratense (Red Clover) is a species of clover, native to Europe, Western Asia and northwest Africa, but planted and naturalised in ...
    REM sleep Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep is a normal stage of sleep characterized by the rapid movement of the eyes. REM sleep is classified into two ...
    Rembrandt Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (, July 15, 1606 ??? October 4, 1669) was a Netherlands|Dutch painting|painter and etching|etcher. He is gene...
    Remicade Infliximab (INN; trade name Remicade) is a monoclonal antibody against TNF??. It is used to treat autoimmune diseases. Remicade is marketed...
    remission (medicine) A cure or remission is the end of a medical condition. The term may refer specifically to a substance or procedure that ends the medical co...
    renal disease Nephropathy refers to damage to or disease of the kidney. An older term for this is nephrosis. CausesCauses of nephropathy include administ...
    renal function File:Physiology of Nephron.png|300px|thumb|right|Diagram showing the basic physiologic mechanisms of the kidney Renal function, in nephrolog...
    renin inhibitor Renin inhibitor, or inhibitors of renin, are a new group of pharmaceuticals that are used primarily in treatment of hypertension.They act on...
    Renin-angiotensin system thumb|550px|RAAS Schematicthumb|250px|Anatomical diagram of RAAS.The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) or the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone sys...
    reproductive thumb|350px|right|Production of new individuals along a leaf margin of the air plant, [[Kalanchoe pinnata. The small plant in front is about...
    reserpine Reserpine is an indole alkaloid antipsychotic and antihypertensive drug that has been used for the control of high blood pressure and for th...
    respiratory distress Respiratory distress may refer to either/both: Labored breathing - the physical presentation of respiratory distress Shortness of breath or ...
    respiratory therapy Respiratory therapy is an allied health field involved in the assessment and treatment of breathing disorders including chronic lung problem...
    respiratory tract thumb|right|250pxIn humans the respiratory tract is the part of the anatomy that has to do with the process of respiration.The respiratory t...
    Restless Legs Syndrome Restless legs syndrome (RLS) or Wittmaack???Ekbom syndrome is characterized by an irresistible urge to move one's body to stop uncomfortable...
    retina The vertebrate retina is a light-sensitive tissue lining the inner surface of the eye. The optics of the eye create an image of the visual w...
    retinoid right|thumb|350px|First- and second-generation retinoid compoundsThe retinoids are a class of chemical compounds that are related chemically...
    retinoids right|thumb|350px|First- and second-generation retinoid compoundsThe retinoids are a class of chemical compounds that are related chemically...
    rheumatoid arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, systemic inflammatory disorder that may affect many tissues and organs, but principally attacks syn...
    rheumatoid factor Rheumatoid factor (RF or RhF) is an autoantibody (antibody directed against an organism's own tissues) most relevant in rheumatoid arthritis...
    rhinitis Rhinitis (), commonly known as a stuffy nose, is the medical term describing irritation and inflammation of some internal areas of the nose....
    rhinorrhea Rhinorrhea or rhinorrhoea, commonly referred to as runny nose, consists of a significant amount of nasal fluid. It is a symptom of the commo...
    rhinovirus Human rhinovirus (from the Greek rhin- which means "nose") are the most common viral infective agents in humans and are the cause ...
    Richard Bright (physician) For the American actor named Richard Bright, see Richard Bright (actor). Richard Bright (28 September 1789 &ndash; 16 December 1858) was...
    risk thumb|upright|In activities such as rock climbing, participants are consciously taking risk.Risk concerns the deviation of one or more resul...
    risk factor In epidemiology, a risk factor is a variable associated with an increased risk of disease or infection. Sometimes, determinant is also used,...
    risk factors In epidemiology, a risk factor is a variable associated with an increased risk of disease or infection. Sometimes, determinant is also used,...
    Robert Willan thumb|Robert WillanRobert Willan (12 November 1757 near Sedbergh, Yorkshire ??? 7 April 1812, Madeira) is the founder of dermatology as a me...
    ROC curve Image:roc.png|thumb|right|ROC curve of three epitope predictors. In signal detection theory, a receiver operating characteristic (ROC), or s...
    running thumb|<center>[[Edward Muybridge photo sequence]]thumb|People running at the 2007 Brussels marathonRunning is a means of terrestrial l...
    S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine S-Adenosyl-<small>L</small>-homocysteine is an amino acid derivative used in several metabolic pathways in most organisms. It is...
    salpingo-oophorectomy Oophorectomy (Pronunciation: ??'??-f??-r??k't??-m??; from the Greek ??????????????? oophoros "egg-bearing" + ?????????????? ektomi...
    salt substitute thumb|right|A salt substitute by AlsoSaltSalt substitutes are low-sodium table salt alternatives marketed to circumvent the risk of high blo...
    Sarcoidosis Sarcoidosis (from sarc meaning flesh, -oid, like, and -osis, process), also called sarcoid or Besnier-Boeck disease, is a disease in which a...
    scalene muscles The scalene muscles (from greek ????????????????, "skew") are a group of three pairs of muscles in the lateral neck, namely the sc...
    scalp The scalp is the anatomical area bordered by the face anteriorly and the neck to the sides and posteriorly. LayersIt is usually described ...
    schizophrenia Schizophrenia ( or ) is a mental disorder characterized by a disintegration of the process of thinking and of emotional responsiveness. It m...
    Seborrheic-like psoriasis Seborrheic-like psoriasis (also known as "Sebopsoriasis,"See also Psoriasis Skin lesion List of cutaneous conditions References...
    Secondary hypertension Secondary hypertension (or, less commonly, inessential hypertension) is a type of hypertension which by definition is caused by an identifia...
    sedation Sedation is the reduction of irritability or agitation by administration of sedative drugs, generally to facilitate a medical procedure or d...
    sedative A sedative or tranquilizer is a substance that induces sedation by reducing irritability or excitement.At higher doses it may result in slur...
    sedentary lifestyle thumb|right|[[Exercise trends|Increases in sedentary behaviors such as watching television are characteristic of a sedentary lifestyle]]Sede...
    seizures An epileptic seizure, occasionally referred to as a fit, is defined as a transient symptom of "abnormal excessive or synchronous neuron...
    selective estrogen receptor modulator thumb|These bottles and pills are of the drugs [[tamoxifen and raloxifene that are being used in a breast cancer prevention trial (STAR).]]S...
    Self-esteem Self-esteem is a term used in psychology to reflect a person's overall evaluation or appraisal of his or her own worth. Self-esteem encompas...
    semantics Semantics (from Greek s??mantik??, neuter plural of s??mantik??s) is the study of meaning. It typically focuses on the relation between sign...
    senescence Senescence or biological aging is the change in the biology of an organism as it ages after its maturity. Such changes range from those affe...
    Sensitization (immunology) Immunological sensitization covers the following usage.1. immunization. There are active immunization and passive immunization. Thus these a...
    Sentinel lymph node The sentinel lymph node is the hypothetical first lymph node or group of nodes reached by metastasizing cancer cells from a primary tumor.Ph...
    Septic arthritis Septic arthritis is the purulent invasion of a joint by an infectious agent which produces arthritis. It is worth noting that people with ar...
    Serbia Serbia (), officially the Republic of Serbia (), is a landlocked country located at the crossroads of Central- and Southeastern Europe, cove...
    serotonin Serotonin () or 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter. Biochemically derived from tryptophan, serotonin is primarily fo...
    service (economics) thumb|A [[bellhop is an example of a service occupation.]]A service is the intangible equivalent of an economic good. Service provision is ...
    sex hormone binding globulin Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a glycoprotein that binds to sex hormones, specifically testosterone and estradiol. Other steroid hor...
    shift work Shift work is an employment practice designed to make use of the 24 hours of the clock, rather than a standard working day. The term shift w...
    shortness of breath Dyspnea (also spelled dyspnoea) or (shortness of breath (SOB), air hunger), is the subjective symptom of breathlessness.DefinitionDyspnea do...
    side chains For other meanings see substitution. In organic chemistry and biochemistry, a substituent is an atom or group of atoms substituted in place ...
    side effect In medicine, an adverse effect is a harmful and undesired effect resulting from a medication or other intervention such as surgery. An adver...
    single nucleotide polymorphism thumb|DNA molecule 1 differs from DNA molecule 2 at a single base-pair location (a C/T polymorphism).A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, ...
    Skin allergy test right|thumb|A patient receiving a skin allergy testSkin allergy testing is a method for medical diagnosis of allergies that attempts to prov...
    skin cancer Skin neoplasms are growths on the skin which can have many causes. The three most common skin cancers are basal cell cancer, squamous cell ...
    skin cell thumb |200px| A close up picture of a [[rhinoceros skin.]]Skin is a soft outer covering of an animal, in particular a vertebrate. Other anim...
    skin diseases There are many conditions of or affecting the human integumentary system???the organ system that comprises the entire surface of the body an...
    skin fold Skin folds are areas of skin where it folds. Many skin folds are distinct, heritable anatomical features, and may be used for identification...
    skin rash A rash is a change of the skin which affects its color, appearance or texture. A rash may be localized in one part of the body, or affect al...
    sleep architecture Sleep architecture describes the structure and pattern of sleep and encompasses several variables. Sleep quotas refer to the amount of time ...
    sleep deprivation Sleep deprivation is the condition of having too little sleep; it can be either chronic or acute. Long-term total sleep deprivation has caus...
    sleep disorder A sleep disorder (somnipathy) is a medical disorder of the sleep patterns of a person or animal. Some sleep disorders are serious enough to...
    sleep hygiene Sleep hygiene can be defined as the controlling of "all behavioural and environmental factors that precede sleep and may interfere with...
    sleep hyperhidrosis Sleep hyperhidrosis, more commonly known as the night sweats, is the occurrence of excessive sweating (hyperhidrosis) during sleep. The suff...
    sleep medicine thumb|225px| An example of a [[sleep diary layout.]]Sleep medicine is a medical specialty or subspecialty devoted to the diagnosis and thera...
    sleep onset latency In sleep science, sleep onset latency (SOL) is the length of time that it takes to accomplish the transition from full wakefulness to sleep,...
    sleep state misperception Sleep state misperception (SSM) is a term in the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD) most commonly used for people who mi...
    sleeping tablet For the state of mind see Hypnosis. Hypnotic (also called soporific) drugs are a class of psychoactives whose primary function is to induce...
    sleepwalking For other uses of the term sleepwalking, see sleepwalking (disambiguation). Sleepwalking, also known as somnambulism, is a sleep disorder be...
    smooth muscle thumb|Smooth muscle<small>thumb|Layers of Esophageal Wall:<BR>1. [[Mucosa<BR>2. Submucosa<BR>3. Muscularis<BR>...
    Social alienation In sociology and critical social theory, alienation refers to an individual's estrangement from traditional community and others in general....
    social anxiety Social anxiety is anxiety (emotional discomfort, fear, apprehension, or worry) about social situations, interactions with others, and being ...
    social isolation Social isolation refers to the objective lack of contact with conspecifics. In humans, it may be caused by a pervasive withdrawal or avoida...
    socioeconomic status Socioeconomic status (SES) is an economic and sociological combined total measure of a person's work experience and of an individual's or fa...
    Somatic nervous system For the musician known as Somatic, see Hahn Rowe. The somatic nervous system (SNS) is the part of the peripheral nervous system associated w...
    Somniphobia Hypnophobia or somniphobia is an abnormal fear of sleep. It may result from a feeling of control loss, or from repeating nightmares.See als...
    specialist registrar A Specialist Registrar or SpR is a doctor in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland who is receiving advanced training in a specialis...
    spermatogenesis thumb|right|Seminiferous tubule with maturing sperm. [[H&E stain.]]Spermatogenesis is the process by which male primary germ cells unde...
    SPINK5 Serine protease inhibitor Kazal-type 5 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the SPINK5 gene.ReferencesFurther readin...
    Spirituality thumb|The [[Helix Nebula, sometimes called the "Eye of God"]]Spirituality can refer to an ultimate or immaterial reality; an inner...
    spirometer A spirometer is an apparatus for measuring the volume of air inspired and expired by the lungs. It is a precision differential pressure tran...
    spirometry thumb|350px|right|<small> Flow-Volume loop showing successful FVC maneuver. Positive values represent expiration, negative values repr...
    spondylitis Spondylitis is an inflammation of the vertebra. Any disorder of the spinal column may also be called spondylopathy. Pott's disease is a t...
    sports thumb|300px|right|Sport in [[childhood. Association football, shown above, is a team sport which also provides opportunities to nurture soci...
    squamous cell carcinoma Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a form of cancer of the carcinoma type that may occur in many different organs, including the skin, lips, m...
    SSRI thumb|[[Serotonin]] Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitor (SSRIs) are a class of compounds typica...
    SSRIs thumb|[[Serotonin]] Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitor (SSRIs) are a class of compounds typica...
    stain thumb|Coffee stainsA stain is a discoloration that can be clearly distinguished from the surface, material, or medium it is found upon. Stai...
    STAT6 STAT6 is a human gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the STAT family of transcription factors.In response to cytokines an...
    statistical significance In statistics, a result is called statistically significant if it is unlikely to have occurred by chance. The phrase test of significance w...
    statistical survey Statistical surveys are used to collect quantitative information about items in a population. Surveys of human populations and institutions ...
    statistics Statistics is the science of the collection, organization, and interpretation of data. It deals with all aspects of this, including the plan...
    Stefania Jablonska Stefania Ginsburg-Jab??o??ska (born 1920 in Warsaw, Poland) is a Polish physician and professor emeritus of Dermatology at Medical Universit...
    Stephen Hales Stephen Hales, FRS (17 September 1677 &ndash; 4 January 1761) was an English physiologist, chemist and inventor. Hales studied the role ...
    sternocleidomastoid In human anatomy, the sternocleidomastoid muscle (), also known as sternomastoid and commonly abbreviated as SCM, is a paired muscle in the ...
    steroid thumb|right|400px|[[IUPAC nomenclature|IUPAC recommended ring lettering (left) and atom numbering (right) of the steroid skeleton.<br /&g...
    stimulant thumb|right|200px|[[Ritalin Slow-Release (SR) 20 mg tablets.]]Stimulants (also called psychostimulants) are psychoactive drugs which induce ...
    stimulus (psychology) In psychology, a stimulus is part of the stimulus-response relationship of behavioral learning theory. There are Descriminative Stimuli (SD)...
    stimulus control Stimulus control is the phenomenon of a stimulus increasing the probability of a behavior (operant response) because of a history of that be...
    stomach aches Abdominal pain (or stomach ache) can be one of the symptoms associated with transient disorders or serious disease. Making a definitive diag...
    strain (injury) A strain is an injury to a muscle or tendon in which the muscle fibers tear as a result of overstretching. Strains are also colloquially kno...
    Stranger anxiety Stranger anxiety is a form of distress that children experience when exposed to people unfamiliar to them. Symptoms may include: getting qui...
    streptococcal Streptococcus is a genus of spherical Gram-positive bacteria belonging to the phylum Firmicutes and the lactic acid bacteria group. Cellula...
    streptococcal infection Streptococcus is a genus of spherical Gram-positive bacteria belonging to the phylum Firmicutes and the lactic acid bacteria group. Cellula...
    streptococcal pharyngitis Streptococcal pharyngitis, streptococcal tonsillitis, or streptococcal sore throat (known colloquially as strep throat) is a form of group A...
    Streptococcus Streptococcus is a genus of spherical Gram-positive bacteria belonging to the phylum Firmicutes and the lactic acid bacteria group. Cellula...
    stress (biological) Stress is a term in psychology and biology, first coined in the biological context in the 1930s, which has in more recent decades become com...
    stress (biology) Stress is a term in psychology and biology, first coined in the biological context in the 1930s, which has in more recent decades become com...
    stress (medicine) Stress is a term in psychology and biology, first coined in the biological context in the 1930s, which has in more recent decades become com...
    stress (psychology) Stress is a term in psychology and biology, first coined in the biological context in the 1930s, which has in more recent decades become com...
    stroke A stroke, previously known medically as a cerebrovascular accident (CVA), is the rapidly developing loss of brain function(s) due to disturb...
    stromal cell In cell biology, stromal cells are connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated...
    Sublingual immunotherapy Sublingual Immunotherapy is method of allergy treatment that uses an allergen solution given under the tongue, which over the course of trea...
    substance dependence According to the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), substance dependence is defined as: "When an i...
    sulfanilamide Sulfanilamide (also spelled sulphanilamide) is a sulfonamide antibacterial. Chemically, it is a molecule containing the sulfonamide function...
    sulfasalazine Sulfasalazine (brand name Azulfidine in the U.S., Salazopyrin in Europe) is a sulfa drug, a derivative of mesalazine (also called 5-aminosal...
    Summer Olympic Games The Summer Olympic Games or the Games of the Olympiad are an international multi-sport event, occurring every four years, organized by th...
    sunlight File:Sunshine at Dunstanburgh.JPG|thumb|right|240px|Sunlight shining through clouds in Dunstanburgh, Northumberland, UK Sunlight, in the bro...
    surgery thumb|right|A cardiothoracic surgeon performs a [[mitral valve replacement at the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center.]]Surgery (from the cheiro...
    Susan G. Komen for the Cure Susan G. Komen for the Cure, formerly known as The Susan G. Komen Breast Cancer Foundation, often referred to as simply Komen, is an organiz...
    Sushruta thumb|right|320px|[[Sushruta Statue in Patanjali Yogpeeth, Haridwar]]The Sushruta Samhita (???????????????????????????????????????) is a San...
    sweat Perspiration (sweating, transpiration, or diaphoresis) is the production of a fluid consisting primarily of water as well as various dissolv...
    sweating Perspiration (sweating, transpiration, or diaphoresis) is the production of a fluid consisting primarily of water as well as various dissolv...
    sycamore Sycamore is a name which is applied at various times and places to three very different types of trees, but with somewhat similar leaf forms...
    symbiosis File:Common clownfish curves dnsmpl.jpg|thumb|250px|right|In a symbiotic mutualism, the clownfish feeds on small invertebrates which otherwi...
    Symmetry right|250pxthumb|200px|[[Sphere symmetrical group o.]]right|thumb|200px|[[Leonardo da Vinci's Vitruvian Man (ca. 1487) is often used as a re...
    sympathectomy Endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy (ETS) is a surgical procedure where certain portions of the sympathetic nerve trunk are destroyed. ETS is ...
    sympathetic nervous system The (ortho-) sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one of the three parts of the autonomic nervous system, along with the enteric and parasymp...
    syndrome In medicine and psychology, a syndrome is the association of several clinically recognizable features, signs (observed by a physician), sym...
    synergy Synergy, in general, may be defined as two or more agents working together to produce a result not obtainable by any of the agents independe...
    systematic review A systematic review is a literature review focused on a research question that tries to identify, appraise, select and synthesize all high q...
    T cell thumb|Scanning electron micrograph of T lymphocyte (right), a [[platelet (center) and a red blood cell (left)]]T cells or T lymphocytes belo...
    T cells thumb|Scanning electron micrograph of T lymphocyte (right), a [[platelet (center) and a red blood cell (left)]]T cells or T lymphocytes belo...
    t helper cell T helper cells (also known as T<sub>h</sub> cells) are a sub-group of lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell or leukocyte) that...
    T-cell thumb|Scanning electron micrograph of T lymphocyte (right), a [[platelet (center) and a red blood cell (left)]]T cells or T lymphocytes belo...
    tachycardia Tachycardia comes from the Greek words tachys (rapid or accelerated) and kardia (of the heart). Tachycardia typically refers to a heart rat...
    tachyphylaxis Tachyphylaxis is a medical term describing 'A rapid decrease in the response to a drug after repeated doses over a short period of time'. In...
    Talarozole Talarozole (formerly R115866, planned trade name Rambazole) is an investigational drug for the treatment of acne, psoriasis and other kerati...
    talking cure The Talking Cure was a term originally offered by Dr. Josef Breuer's patient Bertha Pappenheim (written about in Studies on Hysteria in 1893...
    tamoxifen Tamoxifen is an antagonist of the estrogen receptor in breast tissue via its active metabolite, hydroxytamoxifen. In other tissues such as t...
    targeted therapy Targeted therapy is a type of medication that blocks the growth of cancer cells by interfering with specific targeted molecules needed for c...
    tasimelteon Tasimelteon (BMS-214,778) is a drug which is under development for the treatment of insomnia and other sleep disorders. It is a selective ag...
    taxane thumb|right|The chemical structure of paclitaxel.The taxanes are diterpenes produced by the plants of the genus Taxus (yews). As their name...
    temazepam Temazepam (trade name Restoril, among others) is an intermediate-acting 3-hydroxy benzodiazepine. It is generally prescribed for the short-t...
    Tenderness (medicine) In medicine, tenderness is pain or discomfort when an affected area is touched.Rebound tenderness is an indication of peritonitis...
    Tennessee Tennessee () () is a U.S. state located in the Southeastern United States. It has a population of 6,214,888, making it the nation's 17th-la...
    tension headache A tension headache (renamed a tension-type headache by the International Headache Society in 1988) is the most common type of primary headac...
    testosterone Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group and is found in mammals, reptiles, and other vertebrates. In mammals, testostero...
    tetramethylammonium chloride Tetramethylammonium chloride is a quaternary ammonium salt with the chemical formula (CH3)4NCl. It is a colourless sol...
    TGFB1 Transforming growth factor beta 1 or TGF-??1 is a polypeptide member of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily of cytokines. It is ...
    Thai Ngoc Thai Ngoc or Hai Ngoc (born 1942)In October 2006, however, Ngoc reported that he was beginning to feel "like a plant without water"...
    THC Tetrahydrocannabinol ( ) (THC), also known as delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (??<sup>9</sup>-THC), ??<sup>1</sup>-THC ...
    The Concept of Anxiety Begrebet Angest (The Concept of Anxiety) is a philosophical work written by Danish philosopher S??ren Kierkegaard in 1844. The 1981 transla...
    the Institute for Structural Research The Institute for Structural Research (Instytutu Bada?? Strukturalnych or IBS) is an independent scientific foundation based in Warsaw, esta...
    The Million Women Study The Million Women Study is a national study of women???s health in the UK, involving more than one million UK women aged 50 and over. It is ...
    The Reverse Warburg Effect IntroductionThe Reverse Warburg Effect in human breast cancers was first proposed by Dr. Michael P. Lisanti and colleagues (Drs. Sotgia, Mar...
    The Wire The Wire is an American television drama series set and produced in Baltimore, Maryland. Created, produced, and primarily written by author...
    The World Health Organization The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialised agency of the United Nations (UN) that acts as a coordinating authority on internation...
    The World Hypertension League World Hypertension Day is a day designated and initiated by The World Hypertension League (WHL), which is itself an umbrella to organization...
    theophylline thumb|right|180px|Theophylline extended-release tablets in JapanTheophylline, also known as dimethylxanthine, is a methylxanthine drug used ...
    thiazide thumb|[[Benzothiadiazine (parent of the class)]]thumb|[[Chlorothiazide]]thumb|[[Hydrochlorothiazide]]Thiazide is a term used to describe a t...
    Thomas Young (scientist) Thomas Young (13 June 1773 &ndash; 10 May 1829) was an English polymath. He is famous for having partly deciphered Egyptian hieroglyphs ...
    Thromboxane receptor The thromboxane receptor (TP) is a protein on the surface of cells in the endothelium of blood vessels and in the placenta which interacts w...
    thyroid In vertebrate anatomy, the thyroid gland or simply, the thyroid, is one of the largest endocrine glands in the body, and is not to be confus...
    tibolone Tibolone is a synthetic steroid hormone drug, which is fairly non-selective in its binding profile, acting as an agonist at all five of the ...
    tioguanine Tioguanine (INN), formerly thioguanine (BAN), is a drug that is used in the treatment of cancer.It belongs to the family of drugs called ant...
    tissue (biology) thumb|300px|Cross section of sclerenchyma fibers in plant [[ground tissue]]right|thumb|300px|Microscopic view of a histologic specimen of hu...
    TNF receptor associated periodic syndrome TNF receptor associated periodic syndrome (also known as "TRAPS", "Tumor necrosis factor receptor associated periodic syndrom...
    TNM classification The TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours (TNM) is a cancer staging system that describes the extent of cancer in a patient???s body. T d...
    Tobacco smoking Tobacco smoking is the practice where tobacco is burned and the vapors either tasted or inhaled. The practice began as early as 5000???3000...
    tobacco use Smoking is a practice in which a substance, most commonly tobacco or cannabis, is burned and the smoke tasted or inhaled. This is primarily ...
    tonic-clonic seizures Tonic???clonic seizures (formerly known as grand mal seizures or gran mal seizures) are a type of generalized seizure that affects the entir...
    topical In medicine, a topical medication is applied to body surfaces such as the skin or mucous membranes such as the vagina, anus, throat, eyes an...
    total peripheral resistance Vasculature throughout the entire body can be thought of as two separate circuits - one is the systemic circulation, while the other is the ...
    toxicity thumb|200px|The [[Skull and crossbones (poison)|skull and crossbones is a common symbol for toxicity]]Toxicity is the degree to which a subs...
    Toxicodendron diversilobum Toxicodendron diversilobum, Western Poison-oak or Pacific Poison-oak (syn. Rhus diversiloba), is a plant best known for its ability to cause...
    Toxicodendron pubescens Toxicodendron pubescens, Atlantic Poison-oak (syn. Rhus pubescens), is an upright shrub that can grow to 1 m (3 ft) tall. The leaves are 15 ...
    Toxoplasma gondii Toxoplasma gondii is a species of parasitic protozoa in the genus Toxoplasma. The definitive host of T. gondii is the cat, but the parasite...
    traditional Chinese medicine Traditional Chinese medicine, also known as TCM, includes a range of traditional medicine practices originating in China. Although well-acce...
    traumatic brain injury Traumatic brain injury (TBI, also called intracranial injury) occurs when an external force traumatically injures the brain. TBI can be cl...
    trazodone Trazodone (Desyrel, Oleptro, Beneficat, Deprax, Desirel, Molipaxin, Thombran, Trazorel, Trialodine, Trittico, Mesyrel) is an antidepressant ...
    tremors A tremor is an involuntary, somewhat rhythmic, muscle contraction and relaxation involving to-and-fro movements (oscillations or twitching) ...
    triazolam Triazolam (marketed in English-speaking countries under the brand names Apo-Triazo, Halcion, Hypam, and Trilam) is a benzodiazepine derivati...
    tricyclic thumb|right|200px|[[Dibenzazepine]]thumb|right|200px|[[Phenothiazine]]Tricyclics are chemical compounds that contain three interconnected ri...
    triple negative breast cancer Triple-negative breast cancer refers to any breast cancer that does not express the genes for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor ...
    Tryptophan Tryptophan (IUPAC-IUBMB abbreviation: Trp or W; IUPAC abbreviation: L-Trp or D-Trp; sold for medical use as Tryptan) is one of the 20 standa...
    tumor necrosis factor-alpha Tumor necrosis factor (TNF, cachexin or cachectin and formerly known as tumor necrosis factor-alpha) is a cytokine involved in systemic infl...
    Tumor necrosis factors Tumor necrosis factors (or the TNF-family) refers to a group of cytokines family that can cause cell death (apoptosis).Tumor necrosis factor...
    type 1 diabetes Diabetes mellitus type 1 (Type 1 diabetes, IDDM, or juvenile diabetes) is a form of diabetes mellitus that results from autoimmune destructi...
    type 2 diabetes Diabetes mellitus type 2formerly non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or adult-onset diabetesis a metabolic disorder that is char...
    Type I hypersensitivity Type I hypersensitivity (or immediate hypersensitivity) is an allergic reaction provoked by reexposure to a specific type of antigen referre...
    tzaraath Tzaraath (Hebrew ????????, and numerous variants of English transliteration, including tzaraas, tzaraat, tsaraas and tsaraat) is a disfigur...
    Ulcerative Colitis Ulcerative colitis (Colitis ulcerosa, UC) is a form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Ulcerative colitis is a form of colitis, a disease ...
    ultraviolet thumb|right|[[False-color image of the Sun's corona as seen in deep ultraviolet by the Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Telescope]]Ultraviolet (U...
    Undecylenic acid Undecylenic / Undecenoic Acid is an organic unsaturated fatty acid derived from natural castor oil. It is the common name of the 10-undeceno...
    uric acid Uric acid (or urate) is a heterocyclic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen with the formula C<sub>5</sub>H<sub...
    urinary tract The urinary system (also called the excretory system) is the organ system that produces, stores, and eliminates urine. In humans it includes...
    urinary tract infection A urinary tract infection (UTI) is a bacterial infection that affects any part of the urinary tract. The main etiologic agent is Escherichia...
    Urinary urgency Urinary urgency is a sudden, compelling urge to urinate. It is often, though not necessarily, associated with urinary incontinence, polyuria...
    urine Urine is a sterile, liquid by-product of the body that is secreted by the kidneys through a process called urination and excreted through th...
    urticaria thumb|Hives on the left chest wall. Notice that they are slightly raised.Urticaria (from the Latin urtica, nettle (whence It. ortica, Sp. or...
    Urushiol Urushiol () is an oily organic allergen found in plants of the family Anacardiaceae, especially Toxicodendron spp. (e.g., poison oak, poison...
    urushiol-induced contact dermatitis Urushiol-induced contact dermatitis (also called Toxicodendron dermatitis and Rhus dermatitis) is the medical name given to allergic rashes ...
    ustekinumab Ustekinumab (INN, experimental name CNTO 1275, proprietary commercial name Stelara, Centocor) is a human monoclonal antibody. It is directed...
    uterine lining The endometrium is the inner membrane of the mammalian uterus. FunctionThe endometrium functions as a lining for the uterus, preventing adh...
    vaccination thumb|Child receiving an oral polio vaccine.Vaccination is the administration of antigenic material (a vaccine) to produce immunity to a dis...
    vacuum-assisted breast biopsy Vacuum-assisted breast biopsy (VAB) is a minimally invasive procedure (Biopsy) to help in the diagnosis of breast cancer. VAB is characteriz...
    vaginal atrophy Atrophic vaginitis (also known as vaginal atrophy or urogenital atrophy) is an inflammation of the vagina (and the outer urinary tract) due ...
    vaginal lubrication Vaginal lubrication is a lubricating fluid that is naturally produced in a woman's vagina. Vaginal lubrication or moistness is present at al...
    valerian plant Valerian (Valeriana officinalis, Valerianaceae) is a hardy perennial flowering plant, with heads of sweetly scented pink or white flowers wh...
    van der Waals force In physical chemistry, the van der Waals force (or van der Waals interaction), named after Dutch scientist Johannes Diderik van der Waals, i...
    vascular Vascular in zoology and medicine means "related to blood vessels", which are part of the circulatory system. An organ or tissue th...
    vasculitis Vasculitis (plural: vasculitides) Both arteries and veins are affected. Lymphangitis is sometimes considered a type of vasculitis. Vasculiti...
    vasoconstriction Vasoconstriction is the narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from contraction of the muscular wall of the vessels, particularly the larg...
    vasodilation Vasodilation refers to the widening of blood vessels resulting from relaxation of smooth muscle cells within the vessel walls, particularly ...
    vasomotor Vasomotor refers to actions upon a blood vessel which alter its diameter.More specifically, it can refer to vasodilator action and vasoconst...
    Vasomotor rhinitis Rhinitis (), commonly known as a stuffy nose, is the medical term describing irritation and inflammation of some internal areas of the nose....
    Venlafaxine hydrochloride Venlafaxine (Effexor, Efexor) is an antidepressant of the serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) class. First introduced by Wyet...
    venom Venom is any of a variety of toxins used by certain types of animals. Generally, venom is injected by such means as a bite or a sting. Pois...
    verapamil Verapamil (brand names: Isoptin, Verelan, Verelan PM, Calan, Bosoptin, Covera-HS) is an L-type calcium channel blocker of the Phenylalkylami...
    Vesicle (dermatology) There are many conditions of or affecting the human integumentary system???the organ system that comprises the entire surface of the body an...
    Vienna Vienna (; ; ) is the capital of the Republic of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primary city, with a po...
    Viktor Frankl Viktor Emil Frankl M.D., Ph.D. (March 26, 1905, Czerningasse 6, Leopoldstadt, Vienna ??? September 2, 1997, Vienna) was an Austrian neurolog...
    Viperidae Common names: vipers, viperids. The Viperidae are a family of venomous snakes found all over the world, except in Antarctica, Australia, Ire...
    vision disorder A vision disorder is an impairment of the sense of vision.It is not the same as an eye disease. Although many vision disorders are due have ...
    vitamin A Vitamin A is a vitamin that is needed by the retina of the eye in the form of a specific metabolite, the light-absorbing molecule retinal, t...
    vitamin D thumb|[[Cholecalciferol (D<sub>3</sub>)]]thumb|[[Human homeostasis#Calcium|Calcium regulation in the human body. The role of vit...
    volatile organic compounds Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) refers to organic chemical compounds which have significant vapor pressures and which can affect the envir...
    walking thumb|Simple Walk-CycleWalking (also known as ambulation) is one of the main gaits of locomotion among legged animals, and is typically slow...
    wavelength thumb|right|Wavelength of a [[sine wave, ??, can be measured between any two points with the same phase, such as between crests, or troughs,...
    weakness "Asthenia" redirects here. The tortrix moth genus is nowadays considered a junior synonym of Epinotia. Weakness is a symptom used ...
    Wegener's granulomatosis Wegener's granulomatosis is a form of vasculitis (inflammation of blood vessels) that affects the lungs, kidneys and other organs. Due to it...
    western world thumb|350px|Countries generally considered the Western WorldThe Western world, also known as the West and the Occident (from Latin: occidens...
    wheeze A wheeze is a continuous, coarse, whistling sound produced in the respiratory airways during breathing. For wheezes to occur, some part of t...
    white blood cell thumb|right| A [[scanning electron microscope image of normal circulating human blood. In addition to the irregularly shaped leukocytes, bot...
    William Harvey William Harvey (1 April 1578 ??? 3 June 1657) was an English physician who was the first to describe correctly and in detail the systemic c...
    William Musgrave thumb|right|William Musgrave, by Thomas Hawker (1640-1725), assistant to the court painter [[Sir Peter Lely]]William Musgrave (1655???1721),...
    William Stewart Halsted William Stewart Halsted (September 23, 1852 &ndash; September 7, 1922) was a very influential American surgeon who emphasized hygiene, w...
    withdrawal Withdrawal can refer to any sort of separation, but is most commonly used to describe the group of symptoms that occurs upon the abrupt disc...
    Wnt signaling pathway thumb|500px|right|Overview of signal transduction pathways. On the upper right hand side of the cell, a Wnt signaling protein is shown to bi...
    Women's Health Initiative The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) was initiated by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in 1991. The objective of this women's health r...
    World Cancer Research Fund World Cancer Research Fund International (WCRF International) is a not-for-profit association, established by royal decree in Belgium, with ...
    World Health Organization The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialised agency of the United Nations (UN) that acts as a coordinating authority on internation...
    World War II World War II, or the Second World War (often abbreviated as WWII or WW2), was a global military conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, which in...
    xanthogranuloma Juvenile xanthogranuloma is a form of histiocytosis, classified as "non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis", or more specifically, &quo...
    Yellow Emperor Huang Di or the Yellow Emperor, is a legendary Chinese sovereign and cultural hero presented in Chinese mythology. He is said to be the ance...
    Yerkes-Dodson law thumb|right|Original Data from which the Yerkes Dodson Law was derivedthumb|right|Original Yerkes Dodson Lawthumb|right|Hebbian version of t...
    yohimbine Yohimbine is an alkaloid with stimulant and aphrodisiac effects found naturally in Pausinystalia yohimbe (Yohimbe). It is also found natural...
    Your Disease Risk Your Disease Riskis one of the longest running, publicly available health risk assessments on the Internet. Launched in early 2000 and cont...
    zafirlukast Zafirlukast is an oral leukotriene receptor antagonist (LTRA) for the maintenance treatment of asthma, often used in conjunction with an inh...
    zaleplon Zaleplon (marketed under the brand names Sonata and Starnoc) is a sedative/hypnotic, mainly used for insomnia. It is a nonbenzodiazepine hyp...

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